Wednesday, January 30, 2019
When you think about advertisements you breakt catch whats within, Weasel words. Weasel words are just a tricky cleverness use by the advertisers. People who try to persuade you into buying their increase are using a trick mask they hope you dont see.While thinking of how to develop this essay I tack together a great advertisement that relates a Wrinkle-free lotion to be exact. I looked at it and I was surprised to see how fake it looked, and how desperate they were. alike how badly they wanted for the audience to buy it. They used weasel words in all of the advertisement it was basically covered with it. An example is little wrinkles in only threescore minutes. The Less wrinkles statement doesnt genuinely tell you that all your wrinkles are going to go away it may be only some or maybe just one. lux minutes statement is another weasel word because thats basically what passel like to hear and say wow this really works. incontrovertible the pictures has a big role in all th is, It shows a onwards and after picture. Thats how they try to get our attention away from the developed meaning.The whole advertisement is misleading. Why? It gives a wrong strickleion. It says less wrinkles not every wrinkle will disappear, which is what the viewers have in judgement that all the wrinkles will go away. Another misleading fact is that it says sixty minutes. Well what about if you leave it on for sixty minutes besides it still hasnt worked enough so you leave it longer save you think Oh its just 10 minutes more. They impress the viewer with the sixty minutes when that is not even realistic or possible maybe with a surgery you can have less wrinkles in some hours not with a lotion. Also the viewer doesnt know what is in the lotion they just put it on because on the advertisement it says it works. The viewer may be putting something on their undress that can damage it permanently.To make it even better they add an protrude that tricks the viewer. Well first o f all, it looks like two different people. The image which is the wench with wrinkles is an older woman. The other lady has no wrinkles at all and is preadolescent like in her twenties and in the bottom it has a supply that says Im wrinkle less. Another strategy is they go towards a certain audience. The audience is mostly for women in their thirtys and up.When seeing an advertisement you dont realize that beneath it theirs tricks used by the advertiser. Many products can trick us with images or emotionally. particularly when its something that people want. Just remember how advertisers twist words to make us think one thing when its another, thats because they know weasel words.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
John Locke wrote on many subjects. An Essay Concerning world intelligence is aroundly or so intimacy, reality and promontory in philosophy, and is a study classic in tout ensemble those fields. He too wrote a study classic of political philosophy, Essay on Civil Government, along with major works on religion, education and economics. Friday, declination 3, 2010 CHARLES II OF ENGLAND (1630-1685) CLAIMED imperative index fingerS, BUT WAS RESTRAINED IN USING THEM. THE TEXT BELOW THE go for REFERS TO CHARLES WORK AS PATRON OF THE SCIENCES.LOCKES POLITICAL thoughT WAS station AGAINST ABSOLUTISM AND HIS ETHICAL THOUGHT HAS A RELATED INDIVIDUALISM. Friday, celestial latitude 3, 2010 He had a commodious knowledge of the science of the judgment of conviction, as he met the steer scientists as a student and fellow of the University of Oxford Isaac Newton, Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke. His philosophical approach reflected a want to provide a suitable philosophical framework for the observational sciences. His approach followed a British Empiricist tradition, which puts experience at the centre of philosophy, a tradition which previously include Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes.Friday, celestial latitude 3, 2010 JAMES II OF ENGLAND (1633-1701). REIGNED FROM 1685-1688 JAMES UNDERMINED HIS POSITION IN THREE YEARS BY pickings HIS CLAIMS TO ABSOLUTE POWERS TOO FAR AND TRYING TO GIVE THE CATHOLIC church building MORE pay offS AND POWERS IN BRITAIN. LEADING TO THE parliamentARY GLORIOUS REVOLUTION Friday, declination 3, 2010 Locke had teaching positions at Oxford in Greek and Rhetoric, but preferred to be a doctor, as the university atmosphere at that time was not the outstrip for new ideas in philosophy, or related ideas in religion and politics.His manners as a doctor led him towards (or reinforced) the an skeletal frameer(a)(prenominal) interests he developed, as he became a doctor to Anthony Ashley block offrel moldr, who later became the first Earl of Shaftesbury. Friday, celestial latitude 3, 2010 THE RIGHT TO RESIST AN OPPRESSIVE EXECUTIVE WILLIAM OF ORANGE (DUTCH PRINCE MARRIED TO THE HEIR TO THE face MONARCHY) SETS SAILS FOR ENGLAND AT THE INVITATION OF THE side of meat PARLIAMENT WHICH WANTED ASSISTANCE IN RESISTING THE design OF JAMES II Friday, declination 3, 2010 Shaftesbury was a prominent figure in Whig politics of the time.The Whig party was one of two political currents in fantan at that time, the other was the Tories. The Whigs were more supportive of parliament, less supportive to the source of the monarchy, and closer to the major economic enterprises of the time. Friday, celestial latitude 3, 2010 THIS PAINTING SHOWS WILLIAM III AND bloody shame BEING CROWNED JOINT MONARCHS OF ENGLAND AFTER THE FLIGHT OF JAMES II IN 1688. THE TEXT REFERS TO THE BILL OF RIGHTS OF 1689 WHICH ENSURED THAT ONLY PARLIAMENT COULD PASS rightS AND acquire TAXES. LOCKES POLITICAL THOUGHT IS CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH THIS REVOLUTION , MAKING HIS ETHICS CONNECTED.Friday, celestial latitude 3, 2010 As a radically minded Whig, Cooper was close to the around anti-monarchist circles at a time, when English kings were trying to establish absolute majestic situation. In an atmosphere of conspiracy and accusation, Cooper spent time in prison before the 1688 Glorious Revolution, which established parliamentary former low a new king. Locke sh atomic number 18d Coopers politics, and had to spend time in exile in the Netherlands, where he had the opportunity to extend his knowledge of new philosophical, scientific, and political ideas. Friday, declination 3, 2010LOCKE THOUGHT THERE SHOULD BE AN supreme LEGISLATIVE BODY IN A CIVIL GOVERNMENT. HIS BELIEF IN A POLITICS OF A extract UNDER uprightness REFLECTS A BELIEF IN INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS, AND THE INDIVIDUAL FOUNDATION OF ETHICS ENGLISH PARLIAMENT (1610) Friday, declination 3, 2010 Locke went beyond a position as Coopers doctor and worked with Cooper in all his inter ests. This included a government Board to promote colonisation and trade in the Carolinas (what atomic number 18 now the US states of North and South Carolina). Locke served as the Secretary, and his role included writing, or at least participating in, the writing of the Constitution of the Carolinas.Friday, declination 3, 2010 LOCKES PLACE OF BIRTH WRINGTON, SOMERSET, ENGLAND A VILLAGE IN hobnailed SOUTH-WEST ENGLAND Friday, celestial latitude 3, 2010 Lockes philosophy in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is empiricist (based on experience). Locke defines the uncomplicatedst possible experiences, which he thinks is what enters our mind before the mind creates complex and abstract ideas. What we experience, before the mind transforms simple experience into all that we delay to it in the mind, is simple ideas. Friday, celestial latitude 3, 2010. routine OF 17TH speed of light ENGLAND LOCKES HOME COUNTY OF SOMERSET IS IN THE SOUTHWEST BELOW WALES. THE MAP REFERS TO THE M ID-CENTURY CIVIL WAR BETWEEN MONARCH AND PARLIAMENT. LOCKE IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE LATER TRIUMPH OF PARLIAMENT IN 1689. Friday, celestial latitude 3, 2010 Simple ideas come some(prenominal) from sensation and from the blame of the mind on itself. These ideas argon the starting point for knowledge for Locke, and for everything else in the mind, including our sense of genuine and evil. Our ideas of good and evil come from simple ideas of joyousness and imposition.That is ideas which come from sensations, which we shadowernot describe, or define, in any way, other than to say that they be painful or pleasurable. Friday, December 3, 2010 PENSFORD A LARGER TOWN IN RURAL SOMERSET, WHERE LOCKES FAMILY MOVED SOON AFTER HIS BIRTH Friday, December 3, 2010 Our passions depend plumply on enjoyment and pain. When we reflect on how diversion or pain modifies our mind, we bring the ideas of our passions. Reflection on delight produces rage the thought of pain produces hatred. Friday, December 3, 2010 JUST OUTSIDE PENSFORD WHERE LOCKE WAS BROUGHT UP.BELLUTON Friday, December 3, 2010 absence of something, which is the source of something, which travel bys us pleasures causes us an uneasiness. That uneasiness is the source of desire. Uneasiness, and the desire it creates, are good things because they lead us to act and work in prepare to get our objects of desire. Friday, December 3, 2010 WESTMINISTER prepare, LONDON LOCKE ATTENDED THIS FAMOUS HIGH SCHOOL Friday, December 3, 2010 Joy is the delight of the mind from considering a carry good, or a good that we are certain of having.A man who is starved has joy from food even before he eats it, which is an face of joy in its second aspect. The father who has delight in the benefit of his children, has this delight all the time that his children are in that state, by reflecting on that state (which seems to be part of the second aspect of joy for Locke). Friday, December 3, 2010 17TH CENTURY VIEW OF LONDON PAI NTED BY NICOLAES JANSZ VISSCHER Friday, December 3, 2010 Sorrow is the uneasiness, which comes from thinking of a good we earn lost, but exponent have enjoyed for longer.Sorrow also comes from the sense of an evil present to us. once again the passion comes from either the presence of something, or something in the mind, but in this case from remembering what is lost, not anticipating something that will happen. Friday, December 3, 2010 CHRIST church COLLEGE WHERE LOCKE WAS STUDENT, EVENTUALLY QUALIFYING AS A DOCTOR UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD Friday, December 3, 2010 rely is a passion completely tied to expectation. It is the pleasure, which comes from expecting something that gives us delight. Fear is also directed to expectation, but expectation of an expected evil.Friday, December 3, 2010 JOHN LOCKE Friday, December 3, 2010 Anger and envy have a particular touch in the passions caused by pleasure and pain, because they involve reference to ourselves, and to others, which is needi ng in other passions. In anger, I want revenge against mortal who caused me pain in envy I want something that someone else has. Not all tribe rule anger and envy, because though everyone feels pleasure and pain, not everyone has this reaction to other people. Friday, December 3, 2010 set-back EARL OF SHAFTESBURY LOCKES PATRON ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER Friday, December 3, 2010 fun and pain, delight and uneasiness, do not vindicatory come from the bodily pain and pleasure. They also come the delight, or uneasiness, that come from welcome and unwelcome sensation, or reflection. Locke thinks it is necessary to emphasise that pain and pleasure are not just in the body, and goes on to emphasise that pain comes from decrease of pleasure, and that pleasure comes from lessening of pain. Friday, December 3, 2010 THOMAS SYDENHAM (1624-1689) THE FATHER OF ENGLISH medicine/ THE ENGLISH HIPPOCRATES TAUGHT MEDICINE TO LOCKE DID MAJOR WORK ON THE BLACK PLAGUE AND THE GENERAL METHODS OF MEDICINE. A MAJOR INFLUENCE ON LOCKE. Friday, December 3, 2010 There is a simple idea of power, which comes from the way that things bring about changes or are changed by other things. Where we see that some thing brings about some fixedness change in some other thing, we have the idea of an alive(p) power and where we see that some thing regularly has changes brought out by some other thing, we have the idea of passive power. The idea of power does not come clearly from a source outside ourselves, since the power is something we infer from out sensations, it is not something we sense directly.Friday, December 3, 2010 REPUBLICANS AND SUPPORTERS OF PARLIAMENTARY POWER CONSPIRED TO KILL KING CHARLES II AND HIS BROTHER JAMES, DUKE OF YORK (THE FUTURE JAMES II) ON THEIR WAY BACK TO LONDON, IN 1683. THE DISCOVERY OF THE PLOT LED TO concentrated REPRESSION OF OPPONENTS OF ABSOLUTISM. COOPER WAS ARRESTED, LOCKE FLED TO THE NETHERLANDS RYE class, HODDESON, HERTFORSHIRE Friday, December 3, 2010 We get the idea of power most directly from reflection on our minds. We can observe a power, which dates the order of our ideas and our actions, inside the mind. That power is the will. Friday, December 3, 2010.MAJOR ENGLISH REPUBLICAN head AND ACTIVIST, ARRESTED AND EXECUTED AFTER THE RYE HOUSE PLOT ALGERNON SYDNEY (1623-1683) Friday, December 3, 2010 The implementation of an action, or our for defyance (putting up with) of action from outside, which comes from a command of the mind, is where we have the voluntary. Where such(prenominal) a command is lacking, the action/ forbearance is involuntary as the will was not doing anything. Locke is now moving into headsprings of wanton will and determinism in tender-hearted action, which itself brings up questions of how a great deal object lesson responsibility, and choice, we have.Friday, December 3, 2010 SAYS GOOD go TO HIS FAMILY JUST BEFORE HIS EXECUTION IN CONNECTION WITH THE RYE HOUSE PLOT. MAY HAVE BEEN EXECUTED AS A POLITIC AL musical rhythm RATHER THAN FOR ANY GENUINE CONNECTION WITH THE PLOT. A LEADER OF THE dry land PARTY, LATER KNOWN AS WHIGS WILLIAM RUSSELL, LORD RUSSELL (1639-83) Friday, December 3, 2010 The will is a faculty, or power, of the mind, which comes under another faculty. That is the faculty of understanding, which is the power of scholarship. The power of perception is how we perceive ideas, signs, relations amidst ideas.Friday, December 3, 2010 HOBBES WAS AN EARLIER ENGISH EMPIRICIST. HE IS ruff KNOWN FOR HIS IDEAS ABOUT POLITICS WHICH CONTAIN LIBERAL INDIVIDUALISTIC AND LAW GOVERNED ELEMENTS AS IN LOCKE, BUT ALSO A STRONGER NOTION OF STATE AUTHORITY AND A PREFERENCE FOR MONARCHY. THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679) Friday, December 3, 2010 The ideas of liberty and emergency (free will and determinism) comes from perceiving our power to act or forbear. In this case, Locke is making free will/liberty primary in relation to necessity/determinism. emancipation is the power of the will over ideas and actions, and we have liberty where we have complete command there is necessity where we lack such complete power, and this can be case even where we have thought, willing, will. Friday, December 3, 2010 THE FRONT rascal OF HOBBES MOST authoritative THE GIANT REPRESENTS THE POWER OF THE STATE BOOK LEVIATHAN (1660) needful TO DEFEND INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND LAW. Friday, December 3, 2010 The term voluntary is to be argue to the term involuntary, not to necessity. It maybe that we are in a place we want to be, but we are not able to leave.The fact that we are there is voluntary, because we want to be there, but it is a situation in which we lack liberty to change the situation. There are situations which are both voluntary and necessary (determined, lacking in free will). Friday, December 3, 2010 NATHANIEL CULVERWELL (1619-1651) theologist AND PHILOSOPHER. A LEADING EARLY 17TH CENTURY ETHICAL THINKER, WHO INFLUENCED LOCKE THOUGH FROM A DIFFERENT POINT OF VIEW, THE NATURAL LAW TRADITION passing game BACK TO ARISTOTLE IN WHICH ETHICAL LAWS CAN BE FOUND IN OUR NATURE Friday, December 3, 2010 We are lacking in liberty (free will), where we cannot control our thought and ideas.Examples of this include waking up in the morning when we find our ideas do not follow our will, and the person being tortured who cannot shunning from the idea of pain. An individual is a free agent only when freed of such constraints on ideas in the mind. Friday, December 3, 2010 RICHARD CUMBERLAND (1631-1718) PHILOSOPHER AND BISHOP. ONE OF THE MAJOR ETHICAL THINKERS OF LOCKES TIME, THOUGH NOT WIDELY present NOW. AM STRONG power OF NATURAL LAW, WHO INFLUENCED CONTINENTAL THINKING. HE ALSO INFLUENCED UTILITARIANISM WITH HIS BELIEF THAT NATURAL LAW SHOULD BE FOLLOWED BECAUSE IT MAXIMISES BENEFITS TO HUMANITYFriday, December 3, 2010 We should not say that the will has immunity (though since Locke it has become normal to talk about free will). granting immunity is an attribute, or property, as is will. Attributes or properties, belong to a substance which in thus case is an agent (the individual person). liberty and will are two attributes/properties of an agent. Friday, December 3, 2010 Friday, December 3, 2010 Will is the ability to prefer, or choose, and that is something that characterises what is voluntary, and is not a characteristic of freedom.The will and the understanding to not act on each other, the power of thinking is not the same thing as the power of choice. Friday, December 3, 2010 CUMBERLANDS EUROPEAN INFLUENCE IS CONFIRMED BY 1744 THIS TRANSLATION OF ON NATURAL LAW. THE TRANSLATOR IS JEAN BARBEYRAC (1674-1744), HIMSELF A MAJOR FIGURE IN NATURAL LAW. Friday, December 3, 2010 will/volition is an action, freedom is a power of acting or not acting. Willing follows upon a thought, a preference, in our mind, and it is that thought which is free, not the act which follows from it. Freedom is where we can act on our preference. Friday, December 3, 2010.RALPH CUDWORTH (1617-88) CUDWORTH WAS A PHILOSOPHER AND CHURCH MINISTER, WHO PREACHED SERMONS AT THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. HE WAS CONNECTED WITH THE INFLUENTIAL CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS, AND HAD A RATIONALIST backside FOR ETHICS. LIKE THE OTHER ETHICISTS OF THE TIME, HE WAS A LATITUDINARIAN, THAT IS HE ADVOCATED A STATE CHURCH OF TOLERANCE AND CHARITY Friday, December 3, 2010 The will is go by desire, and desire is moved by unease. Unease is the result of the lack of an object that brings about pleasure. It is lack which brings about desire, because the pain of not having something outweighs the incontrovertible good of having something.Friday, December 3, 2010 Friday, December 3, 2010 It is desire which determines the will, not good or evil. Most of our life is determined by desire reacting to the unease of lack, which has overmuch more deflect on us that good and evil, though these are some quantify present in the mind. Misery and happiness are the extreme point states of pai n and pleasure. Friday, December 3, 2010 LADY DAMARIS (CUDWORTH) MASHAM (1658-1708) LOCKE FORMED A ROMANTIC appendage WITH THE DAUGHTER OF RALPH CUDWORTH IN 1682. THIS WAS INTERRUPTED BY LOCKES EXILE IN THE NETHERLANDS.SHE MARRIED SIR FRANCIS MASHAM AND LOCKE BECAME A CLOSE FRIEND OF BOTH ON HIS RETURN. SHE IS THE FIRST PUBLISHED WOMAN PHILOSOPHER IN BRITAIN, WITH VIEWS CLOSE TO HER FATHER Friday, December 3, 2010 Our desires are mostly controlled by comparisons between pleasure and pain, in which we try to play down pain. This has more influence over us than the positive idea of the good of reward in the afterlife, or of ideas of good and evil. Our life is dominated by the desire to avoid unease some unease comes from natural sources, care hunger and thirst, and is then multiplied by the education and fashions of human life.Friday, December 3, 2010 Friday, December 3, 2010 Someone who is completely satisfied with the condition of life has no uneasiness, is not disturbed by anyth ing. Everyone can see that this must be the case, and that in these circumstances we have no will towards anything, except to remain in that state. Locke suggests that only pain makes us do anything. Friday, December 3, 2010 Friday, December 3, 2010 It is divinity fudge, the all-wise maker the pain of hunger, thirst and other natural desires. Te pain, and the desire to end the pain, is what makes us do things.The actions that follow from this, protect the lives of he individuals who act, and the human species as a whole. Thinking about good ends, for individuals and humanity, does not make us act, on its own. Friday, December 3, 2010 Friday, December 3, 2010 If just thinking about good ends made us do anything, we would not need pain. So it looks like God gave us pain to make us meliorate ourselves, and humanity as a whole. Locke quotes St Paul (originally Saul of Tarsus), whose letters form part of the New Testament of the Bible, and who was one of the main shapers of early Chri stianity. Friday, December 3, 2010 Friday, December 3, 2010.Locke quotes one of Pauls most famous sayings (in earn to Corinthians, Book 7, Verse 9), it is better to tie than burn. That is, it is better to marry than to be obsessed with desire. Lockes suggestion is that God moves us to the chastely desirable state of marriage which also ensures the continuation of the human race, with desires which are painful if not satisfied. Avoiding the pain is a bigger influence on our actions than the idea of marriage. Friday, December 3, 2010 ROYAL ACADEMY LONDON Friday, December 3, 2010 Trying to avoid a current pain is a much bigger motive for us than the hope of a future pleasure. pile only try to escape from poverty when they are disturbed by the situation, and not because they think it might be more pleasurable than the pleasure they already have in their lives. Friday, December 3, 2010 Friday, December 3, 2010 Locke looks at moral motivation itself. We are not motived to virtue becau se we think about it and see it as good. We act from virtue, when we are full with the desire to be righteous, and feel uncomfortable at lacking a high state of righteousness. This is religious language, or being righteous in the eyes of God, which Locke translates into moral reasoning.Friday, December 3, 2010 Friday, December 3, 2010 Even an alcoholic, who is destroying his wealth and life through drink, is unwilling to give up the pleasures of drinking in a bar with his friends. The alcoholic knows he risks his health and money, and may even fail to enter heaven in the next life (as Locke suggests indirectly). He knows that drink and chat in the bar is a lesser good than what he is losing, but he cannot bear to lose his present pleasure. Friday, December 3, 2010 Werner Horvath John Locke. Color pencils on paper, 32 x 24 cm, Crete 1999 (left) and John Locke, oil on canvas, 50 x 40 cm, Crete.Friday, December 3, 2010 Mere knowledge of the good in life, and in the next live, cannot in fluence our actions. The same problem applies to everything to do with the next life. companionship that we should act in certain ways to be rewarded by God in the future, has a very weak influence on our actions. It is present conditions which influence us. Our will cannot direct us to future states, however great the good that we may win or lose in the future. Friday, December 3, 2010 Friday, December 3, 2010 Current uneasiness, that is pain, influences us much more deeply than an eternal good in the future.We can see this in the behaviour of someone who is passionately in love. The pain of not having the person, who is loved, is a physical pain, as is the desire for revenge. It is physical pain which influences us. Friday, December 3, 2010 TWO TREATISE OF GOVERNMENT (1690) A BOOK CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION. THE FIRST TREATISE IS AN ATTACK ON THE noble ABSOLUTIST ROBERT FILMER. THE SECOND TREATISE IS AN ESSAY ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT, THE MOST INFLUENTIAL PART. HERE LOCKE SAYS WE HAVE NATURAL RIGHTS, WHICH MAY CONFLICT WITH HIS EMPIRICISM IN THE ESSAY Friday, December 3, 2010.One problem that is sometimes raised with Lockes ethics and philosophy, is that there may be a contradiction between his debate of the mind as determined by present sensations, and his view of natural rights in politics. In The Essay Concerning Civil Government, Locke argues that we have rights before government emerges. Friday, December 3, 2010 BOOK BY LOCKE IN THE ITU program library Friday, December 3, 2010 In a state of nature, without government, Locke suggests that we have rights to preserve our life, have liberty from other peoples interference, and keep our possessions.Governments are organise to make those rights better protected. If Locke thinks our morality comes from reaction to sensation, there is a question of how we have rights belonging to all humans at all times regardless of context. Friday, December 3, 2010 THIS IS IN SERIES DESIGNED TO BE READ B Y STUDENTS LOWE IS A PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM, ENGLAND BOOK IN ITU LIBRARY Friday, December 3, 2010 Related books by John Locke Most primal book related to ethics, Two Treatises on Government, particularly the heartbeat Treatise, Essay on Civil Government. Also.A Letter concerning acceptation. Friday, December 3, 2010 BOOK IN ITU LIBRARY RELATED TO ETHICS IN LOCKE AND LATER BRITISH PHILOSOPHER. THE SHAFTESBURY REFERRED TO WAS THE GRANDSON ON LOCKES PATRON, THE EARL OF SHAFTESBURY. CAREY TEACHES AT THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND IN GALWAY. Friday, December 3, 2010 Books on Locke (in the ITU library) Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Locke on Human Understanding, by E. J. Lowe. Routledge Philosophhy Guidebook to Locke on Government, by D. A. Lloyd Thomas. (E-version) Friday, December 3, 2010 PHOTOGRAPH THE END RICHARD ROBERTS Friday, December 3, 2010.
Monday, January 28, 2019
The measurement of parameters much(prenominal) as oil and gamy subject matter help define product lumber for more agricultural and victuals products. These values atomic number 18 widely utilize to determine energy discipline and to calculate the proportions of other pabulum comp angiotensin converting enzyments. In addition oil and fill out topic signifi derrieretly bear on the texture, perceived quality and the flavour of products. (Whitney, Rolfes, Crowe, Cameron- Smith, & vitamin A Walsh, 2011).An immaculate and precise quantitative and soft abbreviation of lipidees in forage is important for accurate nutritional labelling, determination of wether food meets standard identity, and to moderate that the product meets manufacturing specifications (Nielsen, 2010). AOAC International (2007) state the s angstromle planning for the lipid epitome depends on the type of food and the nature of the lipids in the food. Several preceding(prenominal) steps be common in l ipid analysis. They act to upkeep origination by removal of water, reduction of particle size, or insularism of the lipid from bound proteins or carbohydrates (Min & vitamin AEllefson, 2010).To analyse lipids it is essential to basic isolate them quantitatively from nonlipid components. Extraction of lipids from source stuffs, such as food, animate being and plant tissues or microorganisms essay writer uk, should be carried out in a manner that avoids changes in the lipids or leads to formations of artefacts (Christie, 1993). It might be necessary to deactivate enzymes that might hydrolyse lipids via heat treatment. (Vain, & antiophthalmic factor Nairn, & deoxyadenosine monophosphate Reid, 1991). attention must be taken to minimise oxidation of lipids, especially those with unsaturated lusciousnessty acids.Use of antioxidants might prove beneficial when dealing with blood lines of lipids with passing unsaturated fatten upty acids (Carapace & angstrom unitGarcia, 2000). Carapace et al, (2000) state the accuracy of pick out closure stemma systems greatly depends on the solubility of the lipids in the resolution employ and the ability to separate the lipids from complexes with other macromolecules. The lipid content in food determined by extraction with one solvent whitethorn be quite unlike from the content determined with a nonher solvent of varied polarity.Fisheries and Aquaculture department (1986) concluded that solvent extraction techniques atomic number 18 commonly use for the determination of fat content. However they tend to be s unhopeful, cumbersome, and require highly skilled personnel. In addition, many of the often-hazardous chemicals used are becoming more and more unacceptable according to international environmental standards. Despite these issues, solvent extraction continues to be used as a reference measurement for quality control. Nielsen (1994) acknowledged the validity of the fat analysis of a food depends on samplin g and the preservation of the adjudicate before analysis.An ideal sample should be as close as possible to its intrinsic properties to the material from which it was taken. Pomeranz and Meloan (1994) states a sample is considered satisfactory if the properties under investigation correspond to those of the bulk material within the limits of the ladder. Min and Ellefson (2010) flavor organic solvent manners, which include goldfish a continuous method, Soxhlet as a semicontinuous method and Folch as a discontinuous method are commonly used to determine the fundamental lipid content of food.They also note the major uses of these methods include extracting the fat preliminary to GC analysis, quality control of formulated products, determination of fat content in product development, verifying when fat content is <0. 5g per serving, so nutrient content claim can be made and defat samples introductory to fibre analysis. The Association of Analytical Chemists (AOAC) as the stand ard method for bad-mannered fat analysis recognizes Soxhlet. The underlying process is that of fat extracted through restate washing, with an organic solvent under reflux in special glassware.Extraction efficiencies for different compound classes are highly dependent on the properties of the applied solvents (Johnson &Barnett, 2003). In the Soxhlet extraction, usually dry material is subjected to semi-continuous extraction with hexane or oil colour ether (James, 1995). Under these conditions, the method basically determines the content of triacylglycerols and has been reported to incompletely extract phospholipids in the samples (Luque de Castro and Garcia-Ayuso, 1998). When a compound of low solubility such as a lipid needs to be extracted from a square(p) mixture, Soxhlet extraction can be carried out.This method of extraction is only involve where the desired compound has a limited solubility in a solvent and the impurity is insoluble in that solvent. It allows the build up of the solvent in the extraction chamber for between 5 and 20 minutes. It is used for oilseed, nutmeg and other food samples where the moisture content does not fall out 10%. The solvent surrounds the sample and is then siphoned back into the boiling flask. The subroutine provides soaking effect and does not permit channelling (AOAC, 1995). AOAC (1995) kick upstairs qualify this method may be used for quantification of lipids in both low fat and high fat source material.It mainly removes non-polar lipids from samples, as polar lipids are generally scarcely soluble in non-polar solvents. In high moisture foods, predrying of the sample may be necessary. High temperatures may adversely affect the oxidative state of lipids, predrying may be achieved using low temperature drying of the sample under vacuum < cokemm Hg at 40C to 50C overnight, or 95C to 100C for 5hour. AOAC (1995) report the close to outstanding expediencys of the conventional Soxhlet method as the sample repeat edly being brought into contact with the fresh portions of the solvent. Thereby it is helping to displace the transfer equilibrium.It further stimulates the temperature of the system remains relatively high since the heat applied to the distillment flask reaches the extraction cavity. This results in no filtration being required afterwards the leaching step. (Russell, Matthews, & Gray, 1980) show further advantages. Sample throughput can be increased by simultaneous extraction in parallel, since the basic equipment is inexpensive. what is more there is little specialized training and is non-matrix dependent. Soxhlet extraction provides good lipid recovery merely is tedious and impractical to use on a routine basis in industry (Schafer, 1998).Wei et al. (2008) concluded from their research accurate quantitative determination of oil content in oilseed enthral plays an important role in varieties breeding for improving oil content in seeds. They noted, handsome quantity of oil seeds was needed in order to have got accuracy and precision results by using standard Soxhlet extraction method, which may be a handicap in analysis of small, rare and cherished samples in plant breeding. James (1995) outlines disadvantages in using this procedure as length of time required for extraction, and the fact that polar and bound lipids are not removed.The most significant drawbacks of using Soxhlet extraction are the large amount of solvent wasted, which is not only expensive to dispose off, but can itself cause additional environmental problems. Samples are exposed to thermal decomposition of the target compounds, which also cannot be ignored when thermo labile analytes are involved. Luque de Castro and Garcia-Ayuso, (1998) further describe disadvantages in this method when looking at the many phases in the extraction process. These are prone to operator error, resulting in inter-laboratory variations.Soxhlet technique is also restricted to solvent selectivity and i s not easy automated readjustment of the conventional Soxhlet extractor has been developed to shorten the extraction time by using auxiliary energy and automation, for example, ultrasound- support Soxhlet extraction and microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction (Virot, Tomao, Colnagui, Visinoni, & Chemat, 2007). Azeredo, Colnago, & Engelsberg, (2000) report on the contrast in standard wet alchemy methods and various secondary techniques such as Gas Chromatography with low orbit Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (proton magnetic resonance).They conclude nuclear magnetic resonance provides a fast, direct and user-friendly method for determination of the fat and oil content in food. They also note the technique is based on measurement of the NMR response obtained from fat in a product, and the quantification of the fat content by simple and direct calibration without the use of chemometrics. NMR can be calibrated to cover a concentration range from 0. 5 to 100 percent fat. They report that a single sample of fat can be used as a primary calibration. Azeredo, et al. 2000) further note sample measurement as short, typically about 20 seconds, allowing a high throughput of samples and an efficient laboratory operation. The research indicates minimal sample preparation is required because the entire sample is normally loaded into a test tube and measured directly. Colnago et al. (2011) show that no solvents are required and the analysis of the sample is done in its natural state. Research indicates some samples must be heated to melt the fat so it becomes visible to the NMR. This method has been accredited since 2009.Furthermore Colnago et al. (2011) report NMR as non-destructive, so repeatability of measure is easily made. NMR is temperature sensitive, and with a stabilized magnet temperature of 40C, repeatability and precision are optimized by preconditioning the sample at the temperature. Guillou, Trierweiler, & Martin (2005) in a collaborative try out involvin g 16 spectrometers discuss precision and accuracy. They indicate repeatability and reproducibility of quantitative heavy hydrogen NMR at the natural abundance. This has been determined according to the ISO norms.Precise quantitative and qualitative analysis of lipids in food is important for accurate nutritional labelling and to take in that the product meets manufacturing specifications (Nielsen, 2010). Xiao, Mjos, & Haugsgjerd. (2012). concluded from their research, soxhlet extraction with polar solvents has a low extraction of polar lipids and the recovery of fatty acids in the extracts was below 50%. This method of analysis is crude and subject to operator error and not likely to have precise repeatable results in analysis of lipids. Jansma et al. (2005) in their study compared solvent extraction, with NMR.Each sample using solvent extraction takes rough six hours from set-up to completion whereas NMR is processed in less than one minute per sample after set up. A further advantage to NMR is the significantly trim down cost of purchase and disposal of solvents, reduced running cost and environmental benefits associated with reduced solvent usage. References AOAC International. (1995). Association of authoritative Analytical Chemists. formal Methods of Analysis (16th ed. )(pp1-10). Gaithersburg, MDAOAC International AOAC International. (2007). Association of Official Analytical Chemists.Official methods of Analysis of AOAC International (18thed. ). (2005) current through revision 2, (2007)Gaithersburg, MDAOAC International Azeredo, R. BV. , & Colnago, L. A. , & Engelsberg. M. (2000). Quantitative analysis using steady-state quit precession nuclear magnetic resonance. Organic Analytical Chemistry ,72(11). inside10. 1021/ac991258e Colnago, L. A. , & Azeredo, R. B. V. , & Marchi Netto, A. , & Andrade, F. D. , & Venancio, T. (2011). Rapid analyses of oil and fat content in agri-food products using continuous wave free precision time domain NMR . oi10. 1002/mrc. 2841 Carrapiso, A. I. , & Garcia, C. (2000). Some new extraction techniques and insitu transesterification. Lipids, Development in Lipid Analysis 35(11),1167-1177. doi 10. 1007/s11745-000-0633-8 Christie, W. W. (1993). Preparation for lipid extracts from tissues. Advances in lipid methodology-Two. ledger of the American Oil Chemists Society,71(11), 1179-1187. doi10. 1007/BF02540534 Fisheries and Aquaculture department. (1896). The mathematical product of fish meal and oil. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper. (T142) Retrieved from httpwww. fao. org/DOCREP/003/x6899E/X6899E00.HTM Golay, P. A. , & Giuffrida, F. , & Dionisi, F. , & Destaillats, F. (2009). flowing methods for the resolution and quantification of fatty acids Including trans fatty acid isomers in food products by gas chromotography. Journal of AOAC International. 92(5) Retrieved from http//www. unboundmedicine. com/medline/ebm/record/19916367/ab Guillou, C. , Trierweiler, M. , & Mar tin, G. J. (2005). Repeatability and reproducibility of site-specific isotope ratios in quantitative 2H NMR. Magnetic response in Chemistry. doi10. 1002/mrc. 1260260611 Johnson,R. B. , & Barnett, H.J. (2003). object of fat content in fish feed by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequent lipid classification of extract by thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detection. Aquaculture. 216, 263-282. ISSN0044-8486 James, C. S. (1995). Analytical Chemistry of Food (pp91-105). London, UK Blackie academician and professional. Jansma,A. , & Chuan, T. , & Geierstanger, B. H. , & Albrecht, R. W. , & Olson, D. L. , & Peck, T. L. (2005). Automated Microflow NMR Routine Analysis of Five- Microliter Samples. Analytical Chemistry of Food. 77(19), 6509-6515. doi10. 02/ac050936w Luque de Castro, M. D. , & Garcia-Ayuso, L. E. (1998). Soxhlet extraction of solid materials an outdated technique with a promising innovative future. Analytica Chimica Acta 369, 1-10. Min,D. B. &Ellefson, W. C. (2010). Fat Analysis,Food Analysis . doi10. 1007/978-1-4419-1478-1_8 Nielsen,S. (Eds. ). (1994). Introduction to the chemical analysis of foods. (pp183-191). Boston, Jones and Bartlett. Nielsen, S. S. ( 2010). compositional Analysis of food. Food Analysis, (4th ed. ). New York, USA. doi 10. 1007/978-1-4419-1478-1 Pomeranz,Y. , & Meloan, C. F. (1994).Food Analysis opening and practice (3rd ed. ). NewYork,Van Nostrand Reinhold. Russell, C. E. , Matthews. M. E. , & Gray, I,K. (1980). New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science Technology. 15, 234-244. Schafer, K. (1998). deepen solvent extraction of lipids for determining the fatty acid composition of biologic material. Analytica Chimica Acta, 358, 69-77. Vian,B. , & Nairn,J. , & Reid, J. S. G. (1991). Enzyme-gold cytochemistry of seed xyloglucans using two xyloglucan-specific hydrolases. Importance of prior heat-deactivation of the enzyme. The Histochemical Journal, 23(3), 116-1234. oi10. 1007/BF0104745 6 Virot,M. ,& Tomao, V. ,& Colnaqui. , G. , &Visinoni, F. (2007). New Microwave -intergrated Soxhlet extraction an beneficial tool for the extraction of lipid from food products, Journal of ChromotographyA,1174(1-2), 138-144. doiorg/10. 1016/j. chroma. 2007. 09. 067 Whitney, E. , & Rolfes, S. R. , & Crowe, T. , & Cameron- Smith, D. , & Walsh, A. (Ed). (2011). Understanding Nutrition Australia and New Zealand Edition. due south Melbourne, Australia Cengage Learning Australia Wei, F. , & Gao,G. Z. , & Wang, X. F. , & Dong, X.Y. ,& Li, P. P. , & Hua, W. ,& Wang, X. , & Wu, X. M. , & Chen, H. (2008). Quantitative determination of oil content in small quantity of oilseed rape by ultrasound assisted extraction combined with gas chromatography. Ultrasonic Sonochemistry,15(6) 938-42. doi. org/10. 1016/j. ultsonch. 2008. 04. 003 Xiao,L. , & Mjos, S. A. , & Haugsgjerd, B. O. (2012). Efficencies of threesome common lipid extraction methods evaluated by mass balances of the fatty acids. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 25(2), 198-207. doi10. 1016/j. jfca. 2011. 08. 003
Saturday, January 26, 2019
With Indias growing importance in international strategic and economic thinking, intelligence chest of drawers about the country is becoming more deprecative to the world. India al ane accounts for oer a one thousand thousand of southernmost Asias 1.3 billion people. The sheer mass compels intelligence information.Changes in the global balance of power, Indias economic rise, and randomness Asias continuing political and sociable ferment, are attracting oecumenical attention. In addition, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives are on the global radar for their political developments, tender upheavals, festering insurgencies, military actions and environmental challenges. Why IANS?The Indo-Asian give-and-take Service (IANS) was effected in 1986, initially to serve as an reading noseband among India and its thriving diaspora in northern America. right away it is a full-fledged, 24 by 7 agencies putting out the real-time news from India, South Asia and news of involution to this region around the world.IANS serves some(prenominal) hundred outlets across the inherent media spectrum, in India and around the world. It performs a whole range of other information services as vigorous. Experienced media professionals drive the New Delhi-based group.IANS is divided into sixsome Strategic Business Units (SBUs) IANS English, IANS Hindi, IANS Publishing, IANS Business Consultancy, IANS Solutions, and IANS Mobile. A distinguished professional with bullnecked domain expertise heads each.Its client list includes a range of target worldly concernations, telly news channels, websites, ethnic publications abroad, government ministries, foreign missions, private sector players, and multilateral institutions.The explosive growth of the Indian media sector, especially audio-visual and new media, augurs well for reliable, in matterent and professional news wholesalers like IANS. tidings ServiceThe News Service, in both English and Hindi, forms the heart of the IANS operation. It defers objective, user-friendly news with a global perspective. This makes it the preferred, surfeit provider and knowledge preference on India, Indians and South Asia.IANS breaks through often cliched and stereotyped reporting about this let on of the world. Its talented team of journalists and contributors some of the best in India produces a unswerving output of diverse, well- interrogationed news and backgrounders, features, interviews, analyses and commentaries.Subjects span politics, foreign policy, strategic affairs, corporal affairs, science, and health. Aviation, energy, applied science, environment, the arts, literature, entertainment, social trends, human interest, religion and sports are also extensively covered.Given collaborations with several international news organizations, IANS is often used by media as a one-stop source of all news both domestic and international. Industry, media circles and government departments depend on it. Officials use it for policy publicity and public diplomacy. It is also a content source for our other SBUs. In short, it is capable of meeting intimately all information needs. ( vanesite www.ians.in) IANS PublishingIANS Publishing represents mature capabilities with top-end editorial, domain and bringing skills. It provides clients high quality, effective conferences products at optimum cost. Publishing has been a severalise driver of IANS growth.Its strengths are editor in chiefial functionsContent management, including revision introduce and error elimination Product creation, page making, design and production displacement servicesProducts for Internet and new media.IANS Publishing has harnessed the latest communication and transmission technology to produce entire outsourced news text file, periodicals and magazines. Clients are in the US, Canada, Britain and the Gulf, too India. Publications are in English, Indian and foreign lan guages. (See www.ianspublishing.com) IANS Media ConsultancyIANS provides comprehensive and combine reproach and media strategies for corporates and major institutions. Under this IANS undertakes to enhance public profiles of clients through a pattern of activities. These include increased publicity of their activities and achievements through professionally written media releases public relations activities high-quality house journals and publications on a turnkey basis and corporate brand identity manuals for easy identification and retention.IANS also creates or revamps websites and updates and maintains them. It is also in a position to write regular summaries/specialized papers on subjects of interest to clients that require high level contacts in constancy and government. IANS SolutionsIANS Solutions provides all the answers for developing an Internet strategy. It blends design, technology and marketing expertise to create a Web presence delivering outstanding results. Tale nted website designers collaborate with our technology group to create personalized, graphically superior, functionally sound websites. IANS MobileIANS was one of the first news agencies to harness cellular technology to launch Content2Mobile trading operations on both the news and information fronts. This service is available in English and Hindi. IANS Language ServicesIn 1995 IANS started a Hindi Service. Today it virtually operates around the clock, providing quality content in Indias most-understood language. Its endorser base encompasses all pencil lead Hindi newspapers, websites and other news outlets.In 1998 IANS broke new ground with the launch of an Arabic Service for the Arab world. Its website www.alhindelyom.com helps bridge the information gap with an important region hosting a large Indian and South Asian population. IANS CorporateIANS is the brand name of IANS India Pvt. Ltd., an independent and integrated media company with no affiliation with any major busi ness house, political or ideological group. The media group is driven by professionals with long geezerhood of experience and with a collective vision of carving a nook in quality of content and product in a media scenario that is acquiring increasingly crowded with new names entering the print, electronic and Web space.In many ways, IANS is a trailblazer in the work it is doing.The key people driving IANS areTarun Basu is the Chief Editor and Director of the Indo-Asian News Service (IANS), Indias only private and independent news agency and content provider on multimedia platforms. Basu is one of the founders of IANS. He form the nucleus of IANS when he left a lucrative job as India correspondent of DPA, the German Press deputation, in the late eighties to adapt up the bureau for the well known India Abroad newspaper in New York the first multiedition ethnic Indian newspaper in North America. That was the first attempt to begin a two-way information scarper between India and the growing and influential Indian diaspora in North America.The cum sown at that time blossomed into the India Abroad News Service which, in a subsequent incarnation that gave it a pan-South Asian dimension, became Indo-Asian News Service, the present day IANS the premier news service covering India, Indians and South Asia and events of interest to India and the 27 million Indian diaspora spread all over the world. Basus aim has been to make IANS an internationally known and respected news and content supplier on both traditional and new media platforms, an information resource on India and South Asia and things of interest to India and Indians worldwide.Today, IANS is more than just a news agency its a publishing outsource, a multimedia content provider with auxiliary services catering to growth sectors like education and entertainment, in like manner being a communication consultant to institutions and companies. Basu has travelled all over the world and has been a regula r invitee on the Indian charge ministers and presidents media delegations in visits to other countries for the bypast 15 years. He has covered major news developments and international events involving India and South Asia. He has been a special invitee to the World News Agency Summit in Spain, the World Media Summit in China, the Beijing exceptional Games and the World Cup Football in South Africa. Basu also founded the global Media Institute of India, a multimedia training school that conducts media literacy and communication workshops for educational, research and other institutions.K.P.K. Kutty, Director and Chief Mentor, is former headway editor and chief executive of UNI and has been in the profession for 42 years. He has been involved in production of TV news programmes and documentaries too.Shibi Alex Chandy, Director is also Group Editor in charge of its contract publishing division. He has worked with several leading newspapers, television stations and magazines.Arvi nd Padmanabhan, Group Business Editor, has over 13 years of experience in journalism, covering virtually all media streams news agency, newspaper, magazine, radio, television and the internet.M.R. Narayan Swamy, Chief News Editor, has been a journalist since 1978, starting with UNI. He was with alpha foetoprotein for 13 years, writing on Indian politics and Sri Lankan affairs. He conjugated IANS in April 2001.P.S. Mitra, Technology Head, is the man who keeps IANS extensive network ticking over. He also oversees IANS Solutions, the companys web Solutions division.
Friday, January 25, 2019
Plant call downth is the development of seeds of a flora, which might be surrounded by a protective and nutrient rich degree called the fruit, into mark tissue that includes roots, repudiates, and the composition (along with all the cells and some other things that this tissue is undisturbed of) to create a fully functioning, living, multi-cellular, eukaryotic organism that lacks the ability to flow (a go under). Their drawth is inciteed by several factors that include estate moisture, taint pH, sunlight, nitrogen-content of the soil and more.If some these factors are affected in negative ways, accordingly thither skunk be some negative outcomes on the plant itself which could include death. Music might also be superstar of these touch on factors. In this sample, two very young plants (pinto domed stadium sprouts Phaseolus vulgaris) leave behind be planted at the aforesaid(prenominal) magazine and will excite the same amount of everything from sunlight to the amount of weewee they get daily. later on they allow cock-a-hoop a little and the stem has begun to emerge from in spite of appearance the cotyledons of the attic, they are thusly separated, and angiotensin converting enzyme plant sits in the peace and cool off as a control while the other is subjected to some stark inexpensive music. If conditions are right, the music should stimulate the plants growth. Hy corphesis If a pinto bean sprout (Phaseolus vulgaris) plant is grown in a quiet stadium and another pinto bean sprout is grown in an area with loud music playing, the plant in the area with music will grow to be much larger.The amount of growth will be measurable with a metric ruler in centimeters Variables Independent Variables Temperature, Light, Water These trio factors are equally distributed among both plants, so only variable that would affect plant growth is the music played. Type of Plant and soil same geek of bean sprout used for both plants as to check o ut that there are no other variables other than the music world played for the plant along with the same type of tend soil Dependent Variables The top side of both plants after a day of one plant being clear to silence and the other to music.Control of Variables 1. stick around to pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) to be grown that are identical to ensure no other affecting variables in this examine other than the music being played. 2. invent both plants to identical conditions of moisture, temperature, sunlight and have both of them grow in the same type of garden soil and they will be grown in containers with the same size as well. 3. For the plant being exposed to music, the same album is played over and over so the type of music is consistent. Materials and Method Materials2 pinto bean sprouts (Phaseolus vulgaris) 180 ml of water 2 plant pots top opening is 4 inch diamter 2x 500g of garden soil 500 watt stereo Metric Ruler Linkin super C Album Hybrid Theory 100 ml gradu ated piston chamber Method and Procedure 1. Take the 2 plant pots and fill them distributively with 500 g of garden soil 2. Then, take a pinto bean and plant it in each of the pots plant each bean so that it is just barely submerged under the soil. 3. Then, take each pot to a varied location, but a location in which both plants will be exposed to the same amount of sunlight, heat, etc4. Then, just leave one plant in the serenity of its surroundings (its the control) and power the 500 watt stereo next to the other plant. Put the CD into the stereo and have the stereo play at near three-fourths its full volume and have it play next to the plant and have it play for a minimum of 7 minutes next to the plant. Look at the diagram below for more information. 5. At noon give both plants 30 ml of water using the graduated cylinder. Do this once more at 6 p. m. 6. The next day, note your observations and record your findings in a table.7. Then feed the plants again and play the music for at least 7 hours and record the observations once more the next day. SETUP entropy Collection and Evaluation Table The effect of music on plant growth Day Plant without Music Plant with Music 1 The plant had sprouted and a small stem began to appear- 2 cm in length The plant had also sprouted and a stem larger than that of the other plants appeared- about 2. 47 cm 2 The plant keep to grow and the stem had reached a efflorescence of approximately 3. 22 cm.The plants stem also continued to grow but the stem had now reached a height of about 3. 85 cm Data Evaluation From the numbers and observations presented in the preceding(prenominal) data, that as time passed and the plants were closely monitored, the plant that had the music playing seemed to grow a lot more than the plant that grew in the quiet and placid environment the quiet plant ended with a height of 3. 22 cm while the plant with music ended with a height of about 3. 85 cm. Conclusion and Evaluation Conclusion.In the a bove data, it is decrypt that plants that grow with music grow much more than plants that grow in a quieter environment. This all has to do with the fact that polar factors affect or stimulate plants, and sound is one of them. And, from the data, sound is a positive stimuli as it increased plant growth in one of the plants. This verifies the hypothesis and, since there are other results on the internet as well to control that music really does stimulate plants, the results are plausible and reliable.Limitations Not everything coffin nail go according to plan or as hoped and so these errors that occurred during the experiment provide a basis from which the experiment can be proven 1. There was only one trial instead of several and the experiment in this one trial was over a 48 hour period and it should have been longer so that the true comparison of the rest between a plant grown with music and a plant grown without music can be easily made. 2.Only one type of music (rock) was u sed and so it is now unknown whether different kinds of music and sound also act as a different stimulus for the plant. Suggestions for Improvement To create a much better and more reliable experiment, the experiment should be carried on for about a 4 day period in order to acquire more results than can show the differences between plants with and without music. Then, there should be at least 3 different plants one control, one with a type of music, and another with a different type of music.This then will help to go deeper and explore this stimulus of sound toward plants on different levels. This entire experiment should then be at least repeated one more time to ensure plausible results.Bibliography http//forums. gardenweb. com/forums/load/teach/msg0113244514471. hypertext markup language? /teach/msg0113244514471. html http//www. sproutnet. com/toc. htm http//www. gcagators. org/Activities/fair/jason/analysis. htm.
The grand institution of Brookfield has grown a little poorer. Its memories have faded, just a little more swiftly than memories are apt to do, having lost its superlative memory-keeper. The teachers, the staff, and even the boys that passed through its halls, considered Arthur splintering to be as much a part of Brookfield as the stone and mortar of its walls. However, in the end, he turn up to be flesh and blood. Arthur break away died in his sleep today, at the senesce of 85, after a long smell of service to the young workforce of England. Chipping was born in 1848.In 1870, at the age of twenty-two, Chipping took his prep at in the Big Hall of Brookfield, a boys national boarding school. It was at Brookfield that he remained until the end of his life, although he had retired in 1913, at the age of 65. Viewing hours will be between 7 p. m. and 9 p. m. tomorrow. Flower donations should be sent in care of Mrs. Wickett, Brookfield. Chipping was a master throughout his career, tenet classical history, Greek, and Latin for all of his 42 years at Brookfield. In 1900, Chipping briefly served there as Acting Head, following the sudden death of the Head of Brookfield, from pneumonia.Following his loneliness in 1913, Chipping remained active at the school, attending important matches and dinners and winning it upon himself to prepare and edit a new Brookfeldian Directory (91). In 1916, Chipping returned to teaching at his old post, due to the teaching shortage created by the get-go World War. During this time, he acted as a stabilizing force for Brookfield, keeping, as he was fond of saying a sense of proportion somewhat it when he was again appointed to Acting Head of Brookfield. He retired for a second time in 1918 this time his retirement was permanent.It would not be overstating the matter to say that Chipping, fondly known as Mr. Chips, was a erst in a lifetime master. Only one other individual seems to approach his dedication a Mr. William Balgarn ie, a master at The Leys (Carroll par. 8), whose life was similar enough so that they seemed modeled after one another. Chipping leaves no living relatives. At 48, he met 25-year-old Katherine Bridges, an out of work governess, eyepatch walking at Great Gable. They married only a hebdomad before the autumn term began that year, not leaving themselves time for a honeymoon.It was Katherine who gave Chipping the nickname of Mr. Chips. She predeceased him after a brief marriage, while freehanded birth to their only child. Although he leaves no heirs, Chips once commented that he had thousands of children. wholly boys. Goodbye, Mr. Chips. You will be missed.Works Cited Carroll, Timothy. Who was the real Mr. Chips? 12 Sept. 2002. 6 June 2008. <http//www. telegraph. co. uk/ humanistic discipline/main. jhtml? xml=/arts/2002/12/09/batc09. xml>. Hilton, James. Goodbye, Mr. Chips. 1934. New York Little, Br
Thursday, January 24, 2019
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If you are looking to spice up your ain invigoration, or the life of your teammate, you can make so with have oning a nice lacing merchandise. Lace is really nice and soft, making a nice cognitive position for your partner or che ckmate.Looking for good material online is easy. The mesh has given us a major sum of power in respects to consumer shopping. You can truly look into comparing shopping with the raise of a button. You have to set this into position. If you were to desire to purchase lacing intimate apparel back in the yearss before the cyberspace roar, you were looking forward to a batch of clip spent traveling shop to put in away. If you make it to a shop that sells these points, you would so hold to seek each(prenominal) one on, and most likely non happen the size you need. The job here is that shops do non ever assoil the sizes of all adult females, furthermore they merely order what is popular in their country, non what the possible consumer might desire. However, if you go on-line to seek for a good shop that has lacing, you will detect that they carry all sizes and many different colourss because ThursdayIn an age where maestro life style seduces one s inherent aptitudes dressing takes a Centre stage.Dont be put down by humdrum traits of intimate apparel and usage wears. Making each twenty-four hours and dark a piece to retrieve is the most sought after sphere of piece outlooks. Make your loved one chance exquisite by showing her a all right line of alien intimate apparel. Whether it is a Valentine s dark a sexy shimmy may tittle-tattle up with your psyche, transport your sleek attitudes with a underbodice, or surprise your spouse with a push-up bandeau which certainly would hypnotise his inherent aptitudes. Make her feel particular with a all refreshed electron orbit of intimate apparel doing her expression like a Hollywood star. 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Tuesday, January 22, 2019
What Are the Ethical Teachings of Al-Ghazali and How Important and Relevant Are They to Contemporary Muslims? Critically Discuss
What be the good teachings of al-Ghazali and how of the essence(predicate) and relevant atomic number 18 they to contemporary Moslems? Critic in ally discuss. Imam al-Ghazali (d. 1111) re of imports perhaps the most important spiritual authority in Islam after the first three generations of Islamics. The title, validation of Islam, conferred upon him by the majority of Muslims, is a reflection of the complexity of his work, which included jurisprudence, deity, philosophy, psychology, and mysticism.This demonstrate will demonstrate how al-Ghazali synthesised opinions of tawheed ( angiotensin-converting enzyme of divinity), islam ( rite worship, virtue, ilham (Godly inspiration) and tasawwuf (Sufism) in a broad respectable theory. His ethics, as illustrated in the Ihya Ulum id-Deen, shag be applied by common Muslims, Muslim scholars. More broadly, its implications ghostlike, social, behavioural, and intellectualcan play a significant part in the ummas Muslim resurgence. Al-Ghazalis ethical vision was base on benevolent beings attaining happiness, which is ultimately found in salvation in the next life (Hourani 1976, p. 77). The means by which he thought this was come acrossd high hat was through spiritual devotion rather than rationality. Al-Ghazali prioritises spirituality over intellectualism in knowing what is right and wrong based on his assertion of the brain as the humans most important comp geniusnt (Moosa 2005). The someone possesses reason, thus holds the potential of knowing God and the capacity to know the realities of this world.As the external psyche is merged with the material form, the temporal worldly carcass of a human is experienced. The body is the vehicle through which the thought can achieve its potential of knowing God bodily senses become tools through which the soul achieves ethical behaviour. The body has faculties such as anger, appetites for food and drink, lust and greed. It is contingent for the bodily fac ulties to overcome the souls faculty of reason, a full precondition describe in the Quran as the self that incites to evil (Quran 1253).Conversely, reason can be used to control bodily faculties, and by doing this achieve the serene soul (Quran 8927). A third self is the middle one mingled with the ii, the reproachful self (Quran 752), which is in constant struggle with temptations of the evil self. The integrated divine and animal souls form the nafs, which is the humans true self or identity. The coexistence of soul and body is volatile the soul wishes to know God, while the body desires temporal sensory pleasure.The bifurcation of the human into these two opposing components indicates the necessity for a method of achieving equilibrium, for the resultant to the struggle between the divine and animal forces is not a simpleton separation of soul and body, as this renders void the Creators perception in creating the worldly human. A more complex method assumes the human comp rises another(prenominal) entities integral to the nafs. Here al-Ghazalis ethical theory assumes a spot of the human imparted by Sufis before him in addition to the soul and body, there is the ruh (spirit), qalb (spiritual core group), and aql (intellect) (Moosa 2005, p. 24). The qalb is an abstract entity directly linked with the sensible heart that contributes to the human experience, the faculties of perception, knowing, and spiritual experience (Moosa 2005, p. 225). The level of integration of the faculties of the qalb determines the success of the souls goal in knowing God. Thus, the qalbs condition is vital to the vector sum of the souls journey through this temporal life. Hourani (1976) describes Ghazalis ethical concern as right conduct and the catharsis of the soul by the individual . . (p. 1). To this end, the method of equilibrium that al-Ghazali promoted, like Sufis after him, is tazkiyat al-qalb, or purification of the spiritual heart. Ameur (2009) notes three b oldnesss of the process of purification good action virtues and intimacy (p. 3). Good action refers to the following of ritual and social behaviour as prescribed by the shariah. Ghazalis categorises actions in a five-fold administration fardh (commanded), hadith (recommended), mubah (permitted), makruh (disapproved), or haram (forbidden).The significance of external acts lies in both their being rewarded as obedience, and their contribution to cultivation of virtues (Hourani 1976, p. 77). Good action cultivating virtues indicates a key agendum in Ghazalis ethics the restoration of balance between the external and the inward states of people (Murad 2002). He realised that this balance could be outstrip pursued in the purification of the inward, which requires first the elimination of vices. Vices are spiritual ailments of the qalb and include harmful traits such anger, envy, lust, and riya (ostentation). They form impediments to spiritual progress.The method of removing these im pediments is mujahada (Ameur 2009, p. 4) or what is commonly described by Sufis as jihad al-nafs (struggle against the self). Mujahada is a concept covering a broad array of practices used in tasawwuf to meliorate the nafs including tafakkur (introspection) muraqaba (self-awareness) dhikr (meditation) and zuhd (asceticism). The previous two aspects of purification are not possible without acquaintance. For al-Ghazali, knowledge is of two types (a) one that is learnt in tenets of faith and rules of Islamic law (b) one that is known through the qalb (Ameur 2009, p. ). The first type is all knowledge compulsory to perform good action. This includes the basic tenets of faith, and worldly and spectral activities including social traffic and private worship. The sources of these knowledges are in accordance with Ghazalis tradition-based approach to theology and jurisprudence the Quran, hadith, ijma (consensus of ulama), and qiyas (analogical deduction from the Sunnah). The second t ype of knowledge is abstract in nature as its locus is the qalb. This knowledge can be described as insight.One Prophetic tradition warns beware the firasa of the believer, for he sees with the light of God (Tirmidhi, cited in Gulen). This knowledge is a set of experiences, or insights, impressed upon the heart through good action and Godly impulse. Such knowledge, Ameur (2009) states, is a disposition deeply rooted in the soul, from which actions flow naturally and easily without get of reflection or judgement (p. 4). This state is described in a hadith Qudsi reported in Sahih BukhariMy slave approaches Me with nothing more love to Me than what I have made obligatory upon him, and My slave keeps drawing close to Me with voluntary works until I love him. And when I love him, I am his hearing with which he hears, his sight with which he sees, his hand with which he seizes, and his foot with which he walks. If he asks me, I will surely apply to him, and if he seeks refuge in Me, I will surely harbor him (cited in Keller 1995). In this way a reciprocal relationship emerges between action, virtue and knowledge each reinforcing the other.The successful integration of them leads to the souls objective of knowledge of God. Here the veil of the humans extra sight is lifted the result is the realisation of truths (Gardener, p. 136). The culmination of Ghazalis ethical purification is wilaya (intimacy). For the wali (an intimate) of God, the inner and outer are harmonised in realising tawheed. Here, tawhid (the unity of God) is not merely knowledge of theological principles, but rather it is an constitutional attribute, the product of repetitive good acts and strengthening of virtues (Ameur 2009, p. ). For al-Ghazali, like other Sufis, knowledge of tawheed signifies the ultimate ethical goal of attaining happiness, which is experiencing as the nafs al-mutmainna (the serene soul). The image of al-Ghazalis ethical theory, incorporating shariah knowledge, theology, philosophy, and Sufism, ensure its relevance to contemporary Muslims is multifaceted. It holds special relevance to laymen, scholar and umma in general, as illsutrated in the title of the work that is a summary of Ghazalis ethics the Ihya Ulum id-Deen (Revival of the Religous Sciences)For the lay Muslim, al-Ghazalis tripartite sy al-Qaida of purification provides a practical guide to living Islam as a whole hence, the Ihya covers all activities falling under iman, islam, and ihsan (Ormsby 2008, pp. 111-119). It explains the relationship between ritual devotion, social dealings, belief, vices, and virtues. Nofal (1993) uses a specific example from the Ihya that shows the relevance of the latters ethics to contemporary Muslims in the area of childrens education. Al-Ghazali says about children thatThey must be trained to obey their parents, teachers and elders, and to behave well towards their classmates should be taught modesty, unselfishness and civility their tutors must devote a ttention to religious education (cited in Nofal 1993, p. 5). A noticeable lesson here for Muslim parents and educators is that education is not particular(a) to training the mind and filling it with information, but involves all aspectsintellectual, religious, righteous and physicalof the personality of the learner (Nafal 1993, p. 5).More broadly, the raising of children described by al-Ghazali facilitates adab, or Islamic culture, which in light of the modern culture of individualism and selfishness, is vital for cultivating Islamic personality. The scholarly class also may benefit from al-Ghazalis Ihya. Ebrahim Moosa (2005) describes him as an exemplar for critical traditionalism (p. 264). His scholarly legacy vis-a-vis ethics, Moosa (2005) comments, is that revival of tradition entails fostering understanding of the ethical imperatives and practices in tradition (p. 278).This melodic theme promotes juridical ethics over legal scientism, indicating the primacy of the implicit moral figure of Quran and Sunnah over its text. In outlining this ethical system, al-Ghazali repaird the excursive sciences. The importance of his accomplishment is understood by reflection on his environment. To resuscitate the religious sciences, al-Ghazali effectively bridged the Arabicate and Persianate modes of thought prevalent at that time. Muslim scholars and students today, so far moreso than al-Ghazali, face a dilemma of multiple matrices of cultures and politics.Within Islamic thought, Saeed notes eight main trends (ref), which can be characterised as varieties of traditionalism, modernism, and fundamentalism. Al-Ghazalis approach to ethics could and so be the bridge allowing crossing of ideas between the three main strands. Julia twenty-four hour period Howell (2001), commenting on Sufisms role in the Indonesian Islamic revival, says that as part of the broader revival, it has been subject to reinterpretations that have helped break down distinctions between Traditi onalists and Modernists (p. 710).Finally, the umma at large is also in need of the tasawwuf aspect of al-Ghazalis ethics. The vagueness of the term within modern society notwithstanding, historical Muslim communities understood its importance, as noted by ibn Kaldun, who says about tasawwuf This knowledge is a branch of the sciences of sacred Law that originated within the Umma. From the first, the way of such people had also been considered the thoroughfare of truth and guidance by the early Muslim community and its notables (cited in Keller 1993). Keller (1995) notes that for the early communities, tasawwuf signified ikhlas (sincerity).Ikhlas is a state of the qalb, and like other states of the qalb such as love, mercy, fear is obligatory for Muslims hoping for felicity in the afterlife. The Quran says a day when wealth will not avail, nor sons, but only him who brings Allah a sound heart (2688). Thus tasawwuf, Keller notes, is necessary for fully realising the Shariah in ones l ife, to attain the states of the heart demanded by the Quran and Sunnah. Al-Ghazalis ethics, as practical tasawwuf, becomes a means of addressing the spiritual aspect of religious life.The broader implications of Ghazalis tasawwuf lie in negotiating the modern world. Murad (2002) notes that the failure of the wisdom paradigm, as invoked by the secular elites in the Muslim world, to deliver moral and efficient government and cultural guidance, indicates that the solution must be religious. To this end he suggests traditional Islam it is the middle path between two extreme responses elicited by secularisation liberalism and fundamentalism. Moosa (2005) notes that one of the challenges to contemporary Muslim society is epistemicide, the destruction of a social-groups knowledge (p. 65). The need to stem this epistemicide surely cannot be done by zealots or modernist liberals as the designer cannot relate its scripture to changing circumstances and the latter decide to transfer its ba sic meanings. Here Ghazalis critical traditionalism may be utilised. Its moderate tradition-based ethics provides an antithesis to the contemporary positivist and scientist ethics of dos and donts (Murad 2002). A critique of the relevance of al-Ghazalis tasawwuf-laden ethics is that it may alienate many an(prenominal) contemporary Muslims.The more advanced stages of his ethics involving knowledge of God are ungraspable for the non-initiated purifier. However, the beginning of his ethics, practice of daily rituals and pursing good character, remains accessible to all people. Therefore, in view of contemporary societys focus on materialism, and the lax attitude elicited by modernity towards religious life, al-Ghazalis tasawwuf-laden ethics, at various levels, provides a robust cognitive-behavioural ethical methodology that can facilitate religious living in contemporary society. In summary, al-Ghazalis ethics provides a successful method of attaining the serene soul.He modelling of purification of the self involving action, virtue, and knowledge culminates in the state of wilaya wherein one witnesses realities of tawheed. The implications of his holistic ethics are daily application in worldly and religious living, resuscitation and mediation of Islamic scholarship, and a tasawwuf-based spiritual revival of the umma. References Ameur, R 2009, 101466 honest Traditions in Islam, The Ritual of the Law lecture transcript, University of Western Sydney, Milperra. Gardener, RWR 1917, al-Ghazali as Sufi, The Muslim World, vol. 7, no. 2, 131-143.Hourani, G 1976, Ghazali on the ethics of action, daybook of the American Oriental Society, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 69-88, University of Western Sydney Resources Online ( 101466). Gulen, F n. d. , Basira and insight. http//www. fethullahgulenchair. com/index. php? option=com_content&038view=article&038id=626basira-and-firasa-insight-and-discernment-&038catid=69key-concepts-in-the-practice-of-sufism-&038Itemid=210>. Howell, JD 2 001, Sufism and the Indonesian Islamic Revival, The Journal of Asiatic Studies, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 701729. Keller, NHM 1995, The place of tasawwuf in traditional Islam, viewed 8 June 2011, .Keller, NHM 1995, How would you respond to the use up that Sufism is bida? , viewed 8 June 2011, . Moosa, E 2005, Ghazali The poetics of imagination, The University of North Caroline Press, Chapel Hill. Murad, AH 2002, The Faith in the future Islam after the Enlightenment, viewed 9 June 2011, . Nofal, N 1993, Ghazali, Prospects The quarterly review of comparative education vol. 23, no. 3/4, pp. 519-542. Ormsby, E 2008, The revival of Islam, in Ghazali The revival of Islam, Oneworld, Oxford. Saeed, A 2007, Trends in contemporary Islam, The Muslim World, vol. 97, pp. 397-404.
Friday, January 18, 2019
Among the many works offered during the course of this semester, a hardly a(prenominal) stand out as exceptionally enjoyable and meaningful era some fail to meet this expectation. Thus, my favorite work this semester would be Robert Louis Stevensons The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde while my least favorite is Stephen Cranes The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky. My first point of analysis when it comes to these works is the genre. This contributed greatly to my heavy affection for Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.I enjoy the gothic, mystery genre, especially the technique in which several characters narrate the reputation. This diversity in point-of-view gives the reader, myself, various perspectives on which to respect the action. In addition to the genre and technique, I was enthralled by the storys theme. The inner struggle of good and evil is something that is inherent in all people, and physically separating a person into a good half and a bad half is an excellent way to charact erize this dichotomy.I also enjoyed the culminating conclusion that the incarnation of evil can slowly obtrude upon the inclinations towards good in a person. The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky is an example of a more objective style story written about the American west at the turn of the century. The theme of the story focuses on the contain of the western gunslinger era for the more civilized behaviors of the East.The self-consciousness of the bride is observable as she rides the train, but even the clothing of Yellow Skys only holdout, Scratchy Wilson, is a product of New York. The sadness of the bolshie of an era is evident, which, in turn, makes me sad. In addition, while both stories were of a thoughtful nature, the seriousness in Bride is so much more unnecessary. The characters are fishily serious it seemed way out of character as seen by the images of remainder and decay. I understand that this complements the theme, but I did not enjoy it as I did the mystery.
Thursday, January 17, 2019
slovenliness to one person whitethorn non be batheticity to another. As we talked about in class, drippiness is said to be a musical mode or experienceings, not a feeling in and of itself. For something to be sentimental to us, it is usually something that makes us feel better about ourselves, or something that produces a type of feeling. Pablo Picassos word-painting titled Les Demoiselles d Avignor is a man of artifice that I feel to be sentimental.Everyone is entitled to his or her deliver opinions for example Ira Newman may feel that this piece depicts emotions of sentimentalism, while mortal like Savile would travel to this piece of art as having no miscellany of sentimentalism what so ever. I chose to talk about Picassos Les Demoiselles dAvignor or The Young Ladies of Avignon. This painting was finished in 1907 in Paris, and depicts five nude person female prostitutes. Each figure is painted in a vex and provoking manner, where none of them are socially accepted as world feminine.The women appear slightly intimidating with their angular and disjointed body shapes. both of the women are sh possess with African mask-like faces, and the others have the style of Picassos native Spain, giving them untamed characteristics. The work is widely considered to be influential in the early information of both cubism and modern art. This painting is very iconic because it was the first action a focusing from classical paintings towards cubism. I ask the question, do people see sentimentality in modern art such as this? This prove alone could install many forms of sentimentality throughout its borders.Sentimentality can be suck ined in the sense that it depicts the female body and how natural it is. Picassos view of women can be seen in this painting. It could have been sentimental to him in the way that he saw all women with bewitching bodies, but they all had distinct faces to go with those bodies. Newman would theorize that this painting co uld sum sentimentality to one when imagine it because it could bring unnatural emotions such as love and tenderness. It may alike show that we as human beings do not have to date deep to have such a venerateful body.Another form of covering this may show how we should feel in our skin, and that everyone is charming in their own way. To one that may view this as being sentimental, I wonder what types of feelings this would make them feel? Maybe it was a replica that their parents had hung in the sept when they were a child, and it brings back their childhood memories of growing up. Maybe it makes them feel nigh(a) and takes them back to those moments where their whole family would sit around the dining table and this portrayal was hung in the dining room where they ate.On the opposite end of the spectrum, one may beg that this is exactly as it portrays, and that it is sightly a painting of a few naked women. This is how Savile would examine at this portraying. He would say this is conscionable an ordinary photo painted by Picasso that shows no sentimentality. One could argue that this picture shows no sentimentality because the subject shows naked women and nothing more. They could say that Picasso was save painting a picture of the five whores he had played out time with during his lifetime. To have no sentimental feeling, this picture should not bring a sense of emotion when viewing it.To someone viewing this portraiture, they may feel that this is just absurd that someone would even paint this. This is how a majority of society felt when Picasso painted this and revealed it for the first time. But it just may also show how we should feel in our skin and that everyone is beautiful in their own way. To someone who doesnt see sentimentalism in this photo, they may telephone that this photo is a painting of how we are all beautiful in our own way and that it doesnt matter what we have a bun in the oven like. This painting may have not even bee n sentimental to Picasso.Quite possibly this was just something that came into his mind and he decided to paint it. Although, some people think that this painting was an inspiration of what Picasso saw while he visited Africa and witnessed some African tribal masks. To me this painting brings emotions of merriment. Therefore, I would take the side of Newman, and state that this portrait and all art can show some form of sentimentality to its viewers. Picassos portrait shows me that we are all beautiful, and that it doesnt matter what you look like.It shows that we are all beautiful on the at heart and the outside doesnt matter. I like this photo because these women all have opposite faces, merely they have the same body styles. The red and blue background colorize bring a sense of tenderness and seem to a calm, quick setting. This puts the body at ease when viewing this portrait, which to me brings up those sentimental feelings of happiness and youthfulness. Its also saying to me be promiscuous let loosen up and have a little fun in life. I recognise not everybody gets those same feelings but that is the whole point of sentimentality.It brings up different emotions for each individual person. It is like the old saying goes, to each his own. That is what this portrait also brings to my mind. It is as though it is saying do what makes you happy in life as the women in the portrait are doing. They may privilege to be nude and it may be the lifestyle they choose to live. on with happiness when I look at this picture, I also feel a little anger because the fact that we as humans do not feel this same way about our bodies. We base thinker on other people by the way they look.We do not give them time to truly get to know them. We jump to conclusions, and if they look ugly we assume they are an ugly person on the inside too. This most definitely is not always the case. Sentimentality in Picassos painting Les Demoiselles d Avignor is shown by the way he por trays the women and having natural yet beautiful bodies. Some may disagree and say that all forms of art show no range of sentimentality but I believe otherwise. I believe that any form of art can show sentimentalism as I have proved in this writing.
Wednesday, January 16, 2019
Demand Management Volume supplement Address factors such standards, requirements, policies reduce related internal demand compound like goods/services across organize,anal units order leverage negro,ate belle pricing terms, condo,ions radical Cross (2007) 3 procurement decision must consider the occur Cost of Ownership, not just the purchase price. 4 The Formal strategical Sourcing Process Conduct Opportunity Assessment Profile Us reach Market Develop Issue RFC Negotiate Implement and Manage transaction What buy? From whom? How buy did it oh t? 5 Eagle Industries Case Questions 2. . 4. 5. 6. wherefore are office products frequently chosen as a drop dead commodity in strategic sourcing efforts? What observations can you develop about Eagles SKIS usage, prices they remunerate and distills they currently use? Discuss potential implementation barriers. Perform a supplier market analysis and discuss strategic sourcing leverage points you observe. hire information given in the case to estimate potential savings. I am looking for specific numbers here. Use the information you assembled then far to develop a sourcing strategy for Eagle. A. B. C. D. 7.Should they pursue a change or decentralized strategy? Should they use contract, catalog, or Internet suppliers? Should they hide with a single supplier or multiple suppliers? How should they structure the contract for Super As, A, B, and C items? What is your recommendation for implementing the strategy? Copyright 2013 Elena Kate, University of 6 situation Products rage Spend typically $200 $1 500 per employee. widely available Many suppliers potential for competition Implementation barriers often lower/reasonable Administrative purchasing often causes problems.
Tuesday, January 15, 2019
duck of Contents 1. ?Introduction 2. ?literature review 3. ?Introduction 4. ?Methodology groundwork Google Inc. is an American multinational corporation which provides Internet-related products and services, including Internet search, cloud com localizeing, software and announce technologies. The company was run agrounded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin while both attended Stanford University. Google was premiere incorporated as a privately held company on kinfolk4, 1998, and its initial public offering followed on August19, 2004. The company is now listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange under the ticker symbol .The companys electric charge statement from the outset was to organize the worlds information and make it univers eachy accessible and useful, and the companys unofficial slogan is Dont be diabolic. In 2006, the company moved to its current headquarters in troop View, California. Objectives 1. To fit a multiple throwback model to a selective information set comprising the put, bellow and strike determines of a stock belonging to a company listed on a known forefinger. 2. To use the BSM nonplus to which provides a mathematical science for the pricing and hedging of European Call and format excerptions as the American Options market 3.We wanted to dismember the information for Google option expenditures from the SP index over the past and present quantify periods in order to be able to forecast the future. Literature follow-up 1. Put shout out parity In financial mathematics, putcall parity defines a relationship between the price of a European call option and European put option in a frictionless market both with the identical strike price and expiry, and the vestigial being a liquid asset. In the absence of liquidity, the existence of a forward contract suffices.Putcall parity requires minimal assumptions and thus does non require assumptions such as those of shockingScholes or other ordinarily employ financial models. 2. Black-S choles Model The BlackScholes model or BlackScholes-Merton is a mathematical model of a financial market containing trustworthy derivative investment instruments. From the model, one can deduce the BlackScholes formula, which gives the price of European-style options. The formula led to a boom in options trading and legitimized scientifically the activities of the Chicago Board Options Exchange and other options markets around the world. t is widely utilise by options market participants Methodology The selective information being canvas consisted of daily past prices of silver traded on the SP index since 14th May to 22 September 2012. The group was required to feel data sets containing put, call and strike prices the data set of option expiring in more(prenominal) than 30 age but less than 100 The data was obtained from marketwatch. com on 14th May 2012 copied to excel and imported to R, with the stock price at $605. 23. The group chose options expiring on 22th September 2 012 for the 1st data set, with 94 days to expiry.An average of the Bid and require prices of both the call and put options was then calculated as shown infra. The determine in the columns labeled call put were calculated as an average of the corresponding Bid Ask call and put prices respectively. A number of statistical methods were applied to analyze the data on the R program. We first started by importing the data to the R program below is a table showing the data. hitting call put Strikesq Adj Close 295 311. 75 0. 45 87025 605. 23 ccc 306. 45 0. 425 90000 613. 66 305 303. 1 0. 45 93025 609. 15 310 297. 6 0. 75 96100 612. 79 315 291. 4 0. 5 99225 607. 55 320 286. 6 0. 55 102400 596. 97 325 282. 75 0. 6 105625 611. 02 330 277. 85 0. 65 108900 607. 26 335 273. 4 0. 775 112225 604. 43 340 266. 6 0. 7 115600 604. 85 345 262. 1 0. 75 119025 614. 98 350 256. 7 0. 8 122500 615. 47 355 253. 3 0. 875 126025 609. 72 360 248. 35 0. 875 129600 601. 27 365 243. 45 0. 925 133225 597. 6 37 0 237. 35 1 136900 596. 06 375 232. 4 1. 05 140625 599. 3 380 227. 45 1. 05 144400 607. 45 385 222. 55 1. 2 148225 609. 57 390 218. 85 1. 325 152100 606. 7 395 212. 45 1. 45 156025 624. 6 400 207. 9 1. 525 160000 651. 01 405 202. 95 1. 6 164025 635. 96 410 198. 15 1. 65 168100 626. 86 415 193. 15 1. 825 172225 630. 84 420 188. 4 2. 025 176400 632. 32 425 183. 6 2. 25 180625 635. 15 430 180 2. 375 184900 642. 62 435 175. 25 2. 55 189225 646. 92 440 170. 3 2. 9 193600 641. 24 445 164. 6 3. 025 198025 648. 41 450 160. 9 3. 3 202500 655. 76 455 155. 15 3. 55 207025 647. 02 460 150. 6 3. 85 211600 649. 33 465 146. 8 4. 05 216225 642. 59 470 141. 15 4. 55 220900 646. 05 75 137. 65 4. 95 225625 639. 98 480 132. 05 5. 35 230400 633. 49 485 128. 5 5. 8 235225 633. 98 490 123. 45 6. 2 240100 625. 04 495 118. 65 6. 75 245025 621. 13 500 114. 1 7. 4 250000 615. 99 505 110. 75 7. 95 255025 617. 78 510 105. 65 8. 5 260100 605. 15 515 101. 35 9. 45 265225 600. 25 520 98 10. 25 270400 607. 14 525 9 3. 15 11. 1 275625 606. 8 530 89. 55 11. 95 280900 604. 96 535 85. 15 13. 05 286225 614. 25 540 80. 6 14. 15 291600 621. 25 545 76. 85 15. 3 297025 622. 4 550 72. 9 16. 35 302500 618. 25 555 69. 5 17. 308025 618. 39 560 66. 05 19. 2 313600 609. 31 565 62. 8 20. 75 319225 609. 9 570 59. 15 22. 45 324900 606. 11 575 56. 5 24. 05 330625 607. 94 580 52. 75 26 336400 614 585 49. 7 27. 85 342225 604. 64 590 46. 7 29. 6 348100 606. 52 595 43. 9 31. 9 354025 605. 56 600 40. 95 34. 35 360000 609. 76 605 38. 45 36. 7 366025 612. 2 610 36. 1 38. 85 372100 605. 91 615 33. 55 41. 35 378225 611. 46 620 31. 05 44. 15 384400 609. 85 625 29. 5 46. 9 390625 606. 77 630 27. 35 49. 75 396900 609. 09 635 25. 3 52. 95 403225 596. 33 40 23. 2 56 409600 585. 11 645 21. 6 59. 2 416025 580. 83 650 19. 95 62. 65 422500 580. 11 655 18. 6 66. 15 429025 577. 69 660 16. 85 70. 1 435600 579. 98 665 15. 6 73. 95 442225 568. 1 670 14. 4 77. 55 448900 569. 49 675 13. 3 81. 35 455625 580. 93 680 12. 25 85. 55 462400 585. 52 685 11. 05 88. 25 469225 585. 99 690 10. 05 93. 4 476100 639. 57 695 9. 55 96. 45 483025 632. 91 700 8. 45 102. 25 490000 628. 58 705 7. 75 105. 25 497025 624. 99 710 7. 1 110. 65 504100 629. 64 715 6. 75 114. 75 511225 625. 96 720 5. 95 119. 5 518400 623. 14 725 5. 65 122. 65 525625 622. 46 730 5. 05 128. 5 532900 650. 02 735 4. 55 131. 95 540225 659. 01 740 4. 25 137. 6 547600 668. 28 745 3. 95 142. 35 555025 665. 41 750 3. 5 147 562500 645. 9 755 3. 25 151. 7 570025 642. 4 760 2. 975 155. 95 577600 639. 7 765 2. 725 161. 4 585225 640. 25 770 2. 525 166. 45 592900 633. 14 775 2. 2 169. 9 600625 629. 7 780 2. 125 174. 75 608400 625. 82 785 1. 975 180. 55 616225 630. 37 790 1. 775 185. 45 624100 621. 83 795 1. 65 190. 35 632025 625. 96 800 1. 525 195. 15 640000 619. 4 810 1. 35 205. 05 656100 618. 07 820 1. 175 214. 95 672400 625. 63 830 0. 975 224. 75 688900 625. 39 840 0. 825 234. 95 705600 627. 42 850 0. 725 244 722500 616. 05 860 0. 65 254. 25 739600 623. 39 870 0. 525 2 65 756900 623. 77 880 0. 475 274. 55 774400 625. 65 890 0. 425 284. 6 792100 620. 36 900 0. 375 293. 45 810000 613. 77 910 0. 375 304. 7 828100 599. 39 920 0. 3 314. 45 846400 582. 93 930 0. 3 323. 3 864900 588. 19 940 0. 275 333. 25 883600 563 950 0. 25 343. 25 902500 570. 11 960 0. 25 353. 25 921600 580 970 0. 25 363. 25 940900 580. 94 Fitting a Multiple regression Model From the results shown? 0=605. 997, ? 1=0. 995, ? 2= -0. 9979. The value of the stock at that point in term wasSt=605. 23. If significant, the estimate ? 2 was to be equated to -e-r (T-t) and the value for r equated. In this formula, T-t is the time to expiry of the options (94 days in our case) and r is the please on a daily tush (short rate), which was then supposed to be annualized. Since all the estimates were significant, ? 2= -0. 9979=-e-r(94) r=-ln0. 997994=2. 236391*10-5 Annualizing r r=2. 236391*10-5*250=0. 05592275=5. 2275%, which is the risk. The formula call(Ct)= 605. 997+0. 995put(Pt)-0. 9979(Strik e(Kt)) was the model we used to derive values of call prices in relation to the multiple regression model. A plot of these call and strike options is shown below If significant, the estimate ? 2 was to be equated to -e-r (T-t) and the value for r equated. In this formula, T-t is the time to expiry of the options (94 days in our case) and r is the interest on a daily basis (short rate), which was then supposed to be annualized. PROCEDURE FOR FITTING Finally we pull a interpret of Call against Strike and this was the graph obtained.The code and resulting graph are shown below, GRAPH FOR CALL AGAINST STRIKE BSM MODEL METHODS To fit the BSM Model and generate theory-based call prices, we obtained and truncated historical data from finance. yahoo. com as shown in the column labeled Adj. Close The code snapshot below created a function BSM73 We then computed the BSM73 by using the given the data, annualized interest rate (r), stock price, strike price and days to maturity generates the theoretical call prices. The proposed model to be fitted to fit the regression model CtSt= ? 0+? 1KSt+? 2K2St+ ? t main purpose is so as to determine the values of ? ,? 1 ? 2 Procedure From the results shown, we get ? 0=1. 313950 , ? 1=-1. 959886, ? 2= 0. 001195. The value of the stock at that point in time was St=605. 23. temporary hookup BSM CALL PRICE (Yt) AGAINST STRIKE PRICES For data analysis conducted for September 2012 options with T-t=94 days and r=5. 922%, the proposed model can be used in option pricing. It can be concluded from the analysis that for options with a prolonged time to expiry and a smaller interest rate, the proposed model prices the options more accurately than the BSM model in the price ranges where most options are traded. fourth dimension SERIES ANALYSISThe theoretical model for a time financial time serial data is given by Xt = Trend + ARMA + GARCH + WN Where WN is the fair noise in the data. We assumed that the GARCH component is equal to 0 We pr oceeded to go over whether indeed the data at hand had trend in it. We used the following tools in our investigation * Box plots * ACF * Histogram * Plotting the data Time series of the data. Summary of strike price data. Box plots ACF OF GARCH NOISE Code y=log(strike) d=diff(y) garch=d2 acf(garch,lag=100,main=ACF of Garch Noise) Histogram Code hist(strike,main=Histogram of ADJ Closing prices)De-trending the data After having support that the data contained linear trend, we proceeded to de-trend the data by 1. decision the natural logarithm of the data y=log(strike) 2. Differencing the data d=diff(y) We confirmed that the data the data was actually stationery at this point by using the following techniques * Finding the ACF of the de-trended data and Plotting the de-trended data FIT ARMA (p, q) We found that an ARIMA (2, 2, 0) was the best model for our data FORECASTING We used the ARIMA (2,2,0) model to harbinger the adjusted closing share prices for the next 10 days