Friday, May 31, 2019

Literature Focus Unit :: essays papers

Literature Focus UnitDay One, school term OneMaterials The True Story of the 3 scant(p) Pigs, by Jon Scieszka, Literary Report Cards worksheet, student journals, pencilIntroduce story1. A grand conversation about different versions of well know fairytales (Ashpet and Cinderella etc.)-Prepare2. Show students the cover of the book and read the title and then ask for predictions about the book- Prepare, empathiseRead the story aloud to the students cover to cover- Read later on finishing the book 1. Have students write their initial responses to the story in a journal. Ask them to think about how this story was different and similar to the traditionalistic story of the Three Little Pigs. Respond, research2. Have a grand conversation about the book and what the students first thought of it. Recap what they have written in their journals. Have volunteers summarize what they have written. Ask students to look through the book and point out similarities and differences between the t wo versions of The Three Little Pigs. Respond, Explore3. Hand out the Report Card book review. Have students complete the book review as in class homework- RespondDay One, Session TwoMaterials The True Story of the 3 Little Pigs, by Jon Scieszka, paper for a word wall, markers, Continuation of the lesson 1. analyze the days previous activities. Review what the students have completed with their literary report cards. - Prepare2. Tell the students that they will be reading the book again. Have them listen carefully to the words in the story and write down any words that they dont already know or understand. PrepareStudents buddy read with a partner- ReadAfter the story 1. Ask students to share their found words with a partner. Respond2. Have students compare their words in their groups and narrow their lists down to 5 words total. -Respond3. Have students create a word wall with their found words- Explore4. Discuss the new words on the word wall in class. Define the words, loo k at how they are used in the book, and create example sentences in which the words could be used.-Explore5. Ask students to create a found poem using the words on the new word wall. Give them time in class to begin. Have the students share their found poems at the beginning of the next lesson.-Explore Day Two, Session OneMaterialsReview all of the previous lessons activites.-PrepareHave students first share their poems with a partner.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Essay --

Anti-Terrorism in the UKThe United Kingdom stands out from the world with its distinctive anti-terrorism policy, which gives the g all overnment prolonged powers to arrest, detain, and supervise those believed to be potential terrorists beyond what many former(a) countries find suitable (Feikert & Doyle 2). The UKs legislation surrounding terrorism is the product of policy that has evolved over time as the result of attacks taken out on the UK itself as well as global events that highlight the need for protection. The government has put in concert a thorough policy in response to terrorism, as well as preventative measures in an attempt to prevent such events from happening in the coming(prenominal). However, nigh measures taken by the government are seen by citizens and global critics to violate individual liberties and infringe on privacy. While the safety of its citizens is the prime penury of such policy, some masses have been left to aspect discriminated against in their own country. While the UKs anti-terrorism policy is no doubt comprehensive, including measures to pursue, prevent, prepare, and protect the people from the threat of terrorism, the government is going to have to deal with the animosity regarding discrimination in order to satisfy its citizens and prevent future homegrown terrorist attacks.Terrorism is a difficult subject to tackle as it is hard to define. at that place is no collectively accepted definition in either the legal, civil, or academic wiz of the word (Panter 579). The government of the UK defines terrorism as the use or threat of action designed to influence the government or an international governmental agreement or to intimidate the state-supported, or a section of the public made for the purposes of advancing a political... ...ent needs to take this situation into consideration when creating laws, especially those that fix the liberties of individuals. The UKs unique style of government and policy autobiograp hy places it in a distinctive position compared to the rest of the world when it comes to counter terrorism measures. The government has created new policies over decades, which have been notable in their barricade of liberties and privacies of its citizens. It has become a controversy as to whether this should be allowed in order to protect the existence as a whole or if these measures are a violation of human rights. Such policy is risky in that it might make some who feel discriminated against or disconnected turn to terrorism. While the UKs anti-terrorism policy is detailed and comprehensive, it must take this into account and deal with the controversy in future legislation. Essay -- Anti-Terrorism in the UKThe United Kingdom stands out from the world with its distinctive anti-terrorism policy, which gives the government extended powers to arrest, detain, and supervise those believed to be potential terrorists beyond what many other countries find suitable (Fei kert & Doyle 2). The UKs legislation surrounding terrorism is the product of policy that has evolved over time as the result of attacks taken out on the UK itself as well as global events that highlight the need for protection. The government has put together a thorough policy in response to terrorism, as well as preventative measures in an attempt to prevent such events from happening in the future. However, some measures taken by the government are seen by citizens and global critics to violate individual liberties and infringe on privacy. While the safety of its citizens is the prime motive of such policy, some people have been left to feel discriminated against in their own country. While the UKs anti-terrorism policy is no doubt comprehensive, including measures to pursue, prevent, prepare, and protect the people from the threat of terrorism, the government is going to have to deal with the controversy regarding discrimination in order to satisfy its citizens and prevent future homegrown terrorist attacks.Terrorism is a difficult subject to tackle as it is hard to define. There is no collectively accepted definition in either the legal, civil, or academic sense of the word (Panter 579). The government of the UK defines terrorism as the use or threat of action designed to influence the government or an international governmental organisation or to intimidate the public, or a section of the public made for the purposes of advancing a political... ...ent needs to take this situation into consideration when creating laws, especially those that restrict the liberties of individuals. The UKs unique style of government and policy history places it in a distinctive position compared to the rest of the world when it comes to counter terrorism measures. The government has created new policies over decades, which have been notable in their restriction of liberties and privacies of its citizens. It has become a controversy as to whether this should be allowed in ord er to protect the population as a whole or if these measures are a violation of human rights. Such policy is risky in that it might make some who feel discriminated against or disconnected turn to terrorism. While the UKs anti-terrorism policy is detailed and comprehensive, it must take this into account and deal with the controversy in future legislation.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Albert Einstein Essays -- Essay s Papers

Albert EinsteinEinstein was born on March 14, 1879, in Ulm Germany. He lived in that respect with his parents, Herman and Pauline. After a year in Ulm, due to the failure of his fathers electrical and engineering workshop, the Einstein family moved to Munich (the capital of Bavaria), where after a year in residence there, Einsteins mother had Maja, Einsteins sister. Despite the fact that he was Jewish, from age five until age ten, Einstein dish uped a Catholic School near his home. entirely, at age 10, Einstein was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium, where Latin, Greek, History, and Geography were pounded into childrens heads. His parents wanted him to give the sack school, get his fleece so he could go to a University, and then become an electrical engineer. alone Einstein had other Ideas for his future. Einsteins father wanted him to attend a university but he could not because he did not have a diploma from the Gymnasium. But there was a solution to this problem everywh ere the Alps, in Zurich, there was The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology which did not require a diploma to attend. The one thing it did require was the applicant to take to the woods an entrance exam. But then yet another problem arose, most scholars were 18 when they entered the institute, and Einstein was simply 16. Einstein took the risk, and in the autumn he was dispatched everywhere the Alps. Einstein took the exam, but did not pass. The principal of the school was impressed with his abilities, so he was admitted to the cantontal scho... Albert Einstein raises -- Essay s PapersAlbert EinsteinEinstein was born on March 14, 1879, in Ulm Germany. He lived there with his parents, Herman and Pauline. After a year in Ulm, due to the failure of his fathers electrical and engineering workshop, the Einstein family moved to Munich (the capital of Bavaria), where after a year in residence there, Einsteins mother had Maja, Einsteins sister. Despite the fact that he was Jewish, from age five until age ten, Einstein attended a Catholic School near his home. But, at age 10, Einstein was transferred to the Luitpold Gymnasium, where Latin, Greek, History, and Geography were pounded into childrens heads. His parents wanted him to finish school, get his diploma so he could go to a University, and then become an electrical engineer. But Einstein had other Ideas for his future. Einsteins father wanted him to attend a university but he could not because he did not have a diploma from the Gymnasium. But there was a solution to this problem over the Alps, in Zurich, there was The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology which did not require a diploma to attend. The one thing it did require was the applicant to pass an entrance exam. But then yet another problem arose, most scholars were 18 when they entered the institute, and Einstein was only 16. Einstein took the risk, and in the autumn he was dispatched over the Alps. Einstein took the exam, but did not pass. The principal of the school was impressed with his abilities, so he was admitted to the cantontal scho...

The Spanish Armada :: Papers

The Spanish ArmadaThe Spanish Armada was a fleet assembled and dispatched by great power Phillip II of Spain in attempt to invade England in 1588. His attempt was unsuccessful. Queen Elizabeth I of England held the defeat of the armada as one of her greatest achievements, assisting the decline of the Spanish Empire. The armada had a mission of both political and religious aims. King Phillip, the leader of the Roman Catholic Spain, was not able to stop a revolt in of his Protestant subjects in the Netherlands, a revolt that began in 1566, back up by Protestant England. By 1586, Phillip had decided that he could not defeat the Dutch until he had defeated England first. Long time religious rivalry between Spain and England was hoped to be resolved by King Phillip in the dethroning of Queen Elizabeth, reconverting England to Catholicism. The plan for conquering had begun. This plan consisted of the coordination of a fleet to sail from Spain and an army from the Netherlands to create a simultaneous invasion of England. His force of 130 ships and more than 30,000 men was to be led by Alonso Perz Guzmn, duke of Medina- Sidonia. England was aware of the Spanish plans, attacking it at Cdiz, Spain in 1587, succeeding in delaying it for a year. By July of 1588, the armada was spotted off the coast of England on July 29. Lord Charles Howard intercepted it with a larger English fleet border on Plymouth, and for the next week made small attacks on the Spanish in battles off of Plymouth, Portland Bill, and the Isle of Wight. Unable to break the Spanish Armada, they waited for their chance at a big blow. The opportunity finally arrived when the armada anchored near Calais, France, hoping to join troops scheduled to sail from the Netherlands. Ingeniously, Howard ordered ships set on fire to be sent against the armada, producing a panic that broke the Spanish formation. In the ensuing battle of Gravelines, on August 8, the Spanish were defeated by England and the armada saile d home with remaining ships that were heavily change to Spain 67 of the original 130 ships reached Spain, most in poor condition.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Alice Walkers Everyday Use :: essays research papers

What&8217s Your Background?Alice Walker&8217s life as an African-American novelist and poet has led to many select winning presently-stories and books. She was raised in the southern state of Georgia and her parents were sharecroppers. This taught her that being an African-Americancan have its rough times. After being shot by a BB gun when she was eight, Alice remained blinded in one eye. Her ailment caused her to seclude herself from other children her age. Alice&8217s feeling of being sure-enough(a) than she was shows in her writing of the short story &8220Everyday Use.One of the story&8217s main character&8217s, Maggie, is a direct relation to the beginning of Alice Walker&8217s life. Maggie, though we usurp&8217t know her exact age, appears to be a young woman. The story tells of her past as though Alice Walker was telling a slightly adapted version of her own life up to that point. Maggie was burned in a fire that was, though never proven, thought to be set by an older sibl ing. After the fire, Maggie walked &8220chin on chest, eyes on ground, feet in shuffle, ashamed of her looks (Perrine 91). In relation, Alice&8217s older sibling shot her in the eye. This blinded her and make her feel likeshe was unpleasant to look at. She secluded herself and felt ashamed. These events led to the other, non-social activities.Alice Walker, after being blinded by the BB gun, turns to reading stories and writing poetry. Many of her literature are related to her life as a young black woman. In &8220Everyday Use, Alice uses the character of Maggie to express her own internal struggles. Maggie is taught by her grandmother to make quilts, and quilts are made toput to everyday use. The opposing character in the story, Dee, only asks for the quilts to hang them and display them as a piece of her heritage. Alice shows both girls opinions to prove that either of the girls could be right. Dee could try to salvage her heritage, if she actually cared about it, by hanging the q uilts. However, Maggie hasbeen raised to know that she can use the quilts and still preserve and continue her heritage by repairing the quilts with new scraps, which have their own meaning. Alice wanted to show the relation between African-American good deal who actually know and harp their heritage, as opposed to just pretending for trend&8217s sake.Dee&8217s character in the story is a direct relation to the number of people in modern society that does not know their true heritage.

Alice Walkers Everyday Use :: essays research papers

What&8217s Your Background?Alice footer&8217s life as an Afro-Ameri cornerstone novelist and poet has led to many award winning short-stories and books. She was raised in the southern state of Georgia and her parents were sharecroppers. This taught her that being an African-Americancan have its rough times. after(prenominal) being panorama by a BB gun when she was eight, Alice remained blinded in one eye. Her ailment caused her to seclude herself from other children her age. Alice&8217s feeling of being of age(p) than she was shows in her writing of the short story &8220Everyday Use.One of the story&8217s main character&8217s, Maggie, is a lease relation to the beginning of Alice Walker&8217s life. Maggie, though we don&8217t know her exact age, appears to be a young woman. The story tells of her past as though Alice Walker was relation back a slightly altered version of her give birth life up to that point. Maggie was burned in a fire that was, though never proven, thought t o be set by an older sibling. After the fire, Maggie walked &8220chin on chest, eyes on ground, feet in shuffle, ashamed of her looks (Perrine 91). In relation, Alice&8217s older sibling shot her in the eye. This blinded her and made her feel likeshe was unpleasant to look at. She secluded herself and felt ashamed. These events led to the other, non-social activities.Alice Walker, after being blinded by the BB gun, turns to version stories and writing poetry. Many of her writings are related to her life as a young black woman. In &8220Everyday Use, Alice uses the character of Maggie to express her own internal struggles. Maggie is taught by her grandmother to make quilts, and quilts are made toput to everyday use. The opposing character in the story, Dee, only asks for the quilts to hang them and display them as a piece of her heritage. Alice shows both girls opinions to prove that either of the girls could be right. Dee could try to preserve her heritage, if she actually cared abo ut it, by hanging the quilts. However, Maggie hasbeen raised to know that she can use the quilts and still preserve and continue her heritage by repairing the quilts with new scraps, which have their own meaning. Alice wanted to show the relation between African-American plurality who actually know and live their heritage, as opposed to just pretending for trend&8217s sake.Dee&8217s character in the story is a direct relation to the number of people in modern society that does not know their true heritage.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Code of Conduct Essay

As a consultant for the merger between UWEAR and PALEDENIM, I collect gathitherd much information pertaining the creating and implementation of a code of send. There are many different personal manners this code of conduct can be implemented and delivered. While viewing that to each one company testament conduct different preferences as to how to implement the code, I leave behind submit an outline of what I believe is the best and most efficient way to deliver the code of conduct for both companies equally. A code of conduct will create a framework or visual of how employees and clients will view the company as a whole. The existence of the codes seem to frame how the companies and their activities are understood. (Frostenson, Helin, & Sandstrm, 2012, p. 269) The code of conduct for UWEAR and PALEDENIM will include four main components Our Code and Responsibility, Violations and Consequences, Law Compliances and Regulatory Orders, and Policies and Procedures. Our Code and Re sponsibilitiesThis would be the first section of the code of conduct. It should include the overview of the code, the responsibilities the code provides to the company, and those persons who must brave by the code. The responsibilities of the code are to serve as a guide to help employees, officers, and board members in making informed and ethical decisions. All persons including trey parties, business partners, and contractors must know and understand the code and act in a way that is consistent with the code. Violations and ConsequencesViolations and consequences will be listed in this section, but will not be limited to the written communications here. Employees will be encouraged to know and understand each violation listed and its consequences. They will also be expected to report any observed accounts of unethical behavior. Consequences would include but wouldnt be limited to separation of employment. Law Compliances and Regulatory OrdersThe information listed here would be mostly useful to management and executive level officers. However, employees must abide by knowledge andunderstanding of this section in order to remain pliant at the door level. All federal official regulations will be stated in this portion of the code of conduct. For example, the policy created to implement the Public Company accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) to monitor internal auditing policies would be stated in this section. Here is where the human resources department will verify the companys compliances with federal regulatory acts such as the Sarbanes- Oxley Act. Policies and ProceduresThe policies and procedures section will include all policies that employees, managers, and board members must follow. There will be sections to separate the policies that apply to each individual level. Although board members and managers are ranked higher than door level employees, they must button up abide by the policies and procedures of the lower level employees. For example, the No afford policy as stated in previous works, will be listed under a section for door level employees but must still be followed by all employees of the company. This will guarantee a fair level of work and maintain employee moral as far as ethical motive and behaviors are concerned. Consistency across the board for all employees and work levels, is the goal in stating the policies and procedures. Non-compliance to policies and procedures will be stated in the violations and consequences section.After the code of conduct is fully compiled and voted on by the ethics board, it must be delivered. Although having a creative way to present the code of conduct to the company, it is more important to understand the client and their expectations. Preparation as a speaker would be my main focus in delivering the code. As much as technology has advanced and alter the quality of audiovisuals aids in presentations, it is important to examine the basics of being a better speaker. (Lucente-Col e, 2004, p. 42) Preparing myself to deliver the code of conduct in a way that generates feedback from the audience, will allow me to verify understanding and knowledge of the code. The code would be delivered in a new employee handbook and reviewed in all new lead orientations. Each new hire would be required to sign for receipt and understanding of the communications in the code of conduct. As for existing employees, they will review and sign for receipt during the next quarterly meeting.There are other additional policies that havent been listed or discussed but should definitely be included. iodine of the most common policies that hasnt been established is attending. The attendance policy would be carried out or listed in different stages. For example, if an employee is tardy, there would be a vocal counseling to address stage one of the tardy policy in attendance. If that employee is tardy again, they will be disciplined according to stage two of the attendance policy. Disci plinary actions can be reduced or removed from an employees record after that employee exemplifies compliance with the policy for six months.Last but certainly not least, UWEAR and PALEDENIM should have a policy addressing sexual harassment. familiar harassment occurs very often in the workplace. UWEAR and PALEDENIM must state explicitly, the expectations and consequences of sexual harassment. Harassment does not have to be of a sexual nature, however, and can include offensive remarks about a persons sex. For example, it is illegal to harass a woman by making offensive comments about women in general. (Sexual Harassment, n.d., para. 2) They, UWEAR and PALEDENIM, must make sure each employee understands what could be considered as sexual harassment in order to maintain compliance to this policy. Due to the fact that major lawsuits can be created from an occurrence of sexual harassment, this policy will be listed under Law Regulations and it must be strongly enforced.ReferencesFrost enson, M., Helin, S., & Sandstrm, J. (2012). The internal significance of codes of conduct in retail companies. Business Ethics A European Review, 21(3), 263-275. doi10.1111/j.1467-8608.2012.01657.x Lucente-Cole, G. (2004). Delivering An Effective Presentation. Public Relations Quarterly, 49(4), 42. Sexual Harassment. (n.d.). Retrieved September 22, 2014, from http//www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/sexual_harassment.cfm

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Heathcliff of Wuthering Heights Essay

Wuthering Heights is Emily Brontes only novel, published in 1847 under the pseudonym Ellis Bell. Wuthering Heights is the name of the manor al to the highest degree which the story centers. Wuthering is also a Yorkshire word which refers to turbulent weather. The novel tells the account of the sweeping and fanatical roll in the hay between Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw, and how this unresolved obsession ultimately destroys them and others more or less them. The character I chose was that of Heathcliffs, around whom the story centers. The first paragraph of the novel provides a vivid picture of him, as Lockwood describes meeting himA capital co-worker He little imagined how my heart warmed towards him when I beheld his black eyes withdraw so suspiciously under their brows, as I rode up, and when his fingers sheltered themselves, with a jealous resolution, still further in his waistcoat.. . (Bronte). The novel begins with his founding into the Earnshaw family, his re de cattin essful scheming drives the whole plot, and his death ends the book. The want to understand his complicated character and his vengeful motivations has kept incalculable readers engaged in the novels since its inception in the literary world.Bronte spun a complex Heathcliff who defies being understood, and the charm of this multifaceted character has fascinated readers and will continue to do so evermore. The novel torments the reader with the likelihood that Heathcliff is something other than what he seems that his malice is simply an expression of unrequited love for Catherine, or that his threatening behavior serves to hide the soul of passionate hero. However, his malice proves so great and long-lasting that it raftnot be sufficiently explained even as a desire for retribution against Hindley, Catherine, Edgar, etc.As he himself points out in the novel, his mistreatment of Isabella is purely sadistic, as he amuses himself how much cruelty she can take and still comes back for more. tyro Joyce Carol argues that Emily Bronte does the same thing to the reader that Heathcliff does to Isabella, testing to see how many times the reader can be shocked by Heathcliffs unwarranted violence and still, masochistically, insist on seeing him as a romantic hero. (Oates 48). Heathcliff arrived in the Earnshaw family by mere chance. Mr. Earnshaw found a boy who looked like a gypsy and had been apparently deserted on the streets of Liverpool.He brought the child home to join his own family and named him after his son who had died. All the members of the household were opposed to the introduction of the strange boy, in particular the Earnshaw children, who detested the darked-skinned Heathcliff. But Catherine quickly comes to love Heathcliff, and they become inseparable, spending many a day playing on the moors. afterward his wifes death, Mr. Earnshaw begins to love Heathcliff to his own son, and when Hindley persists his cruelty to Heathcliff, Mr Earnshaw sends Hindley away to college, keeping Heathcliff nearby.Three years later, Hindley returns home after his fathers death to acquire Wuthering Heights and brings a wife with him. Hindley seeks penalize on Heathcliff. Heathcliff then finds himself treated as a common labourer, forced to work in the fields. Heathcliff leaves Wuthering Heights, staying away for trey years, and returns shortly after Catherine and Edgars marriage. When he returns, he immediately sets about seeking revenge on all who wronged him. He lends large amounts of money to the bibulous Hindley, knowing that Hindley will increase his debts and fall into deeper despondency. WhenHindley dies, Heathcliff inherits the manor. He also places himself in line to inherit Thrushcross Grange by marrying Isabella Linton, who he treats actually cruelly. Catherine gets ill, gives birth to a daughter, and dies. Isabella flees to capital of the United Kingdom and gives birth to Heathcliffs son, named Linton after her family. Isabella dies thirteen years later, and Linton comes to live with his father, who treats his sickly, whining son even more cruelly than he treated his mother. Three years later, upstart Catherine meets Heathcliff on the moors, and makes a visit to Wuthering Heights to meet Linton.She and Linton begin a secret romance, but it soon becomes evident that Linton is pursuing Catherine only because Heathcliff is forcing him. Heathcliff forces Catherine to marry Linton, who dies very shortly afterwards. Edgar is also dead. Catherine is forced to live as a common servant at Wuthering Heights, while Thrushcross Grange is rented to Mr. Loockwood. Although Catherine originally mocked Haretons ignorance and illiteracy (in an act of retribution, Heathcliff cease Haretons education after Hindley died), Catherine grows to love Hareton as they live together at Wuthering Heights..Heathcliff becomes more and more obsessed with the memory of the elder Catherine, to the extent that he begins speaking to the ghost. Everything reminds of her. Shortly after a night spent walking on the moors, Heathcliff dies. Hareton and Catherine plan to be married, and they inherit Wuthering Heights and Thrushcross Grange after Heathcliffs death. The most hauntingly beautiful aspect about this novel is the extent of Heathcliffs love for Catherine even after her rejection of him (although she professed ever-lasting love) by marrying Edger.His love survives the rejection and continues undaunted. His loyalty to her is unwavering in spite of the mad rejection. When Catherine falls ill, he exclaims that life without her would be hell. Her death kills his love for her and he focuses his existence on exacting revenge. His thwarted passion converts into an obsession for destruction and revenge. The love that Catherine and Heathcliff share is not mere romantic love nor is it based on physical attraction. It is a coming together of souls, as they professed to be soul-mates.Heathcliffs motivations and brutality can be u nderstood to some extent when one brings into consideration the cruelty he had to endure as a child at the hands of the ranking(a) richer classes. He becomes persistent, and anti social to protect himself from the humiliation suffered in his earlier years. He is the incarnation of pauperization masses rejected by the system as human refuse and his revenge can be seen as that of accumulated class disgust which brings down members of the privileged social class. He was only a child when he wished to avenge HindleyIm trying to settle how I shall pay Hindley back. I dont care how long I wait, if I can only do it last. I hope he will not die before I do it. (Bronte 64). The root of his sharpness is the consequences of the actions of the adults towards him. The recollection of the humiliation which he experience in his childhood left a devastating effect on him, impressed upon his soul like a heated iron the undeserving spanking from Hindley and the contempt of the Lintons who exclaim ed that there was no place for a gypsy in a decent house.Their daughter Isabelle, whom he later married, detested him and suggested to her father to throw him into the basement, while Edgar compared his hair to the mane of a horse. But the cruelest were Catherines words It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff now (Bronte 80) The canonical motivation of Heathcliffs actions has a social background. From the beginning of the novel and most likely from the beginning of his life, he has endured rejection and pain. When he is brought to Wuthering Heights by Mr.Earnshaw, he is viewed as a thing rather than a child. The subject of revenge is so important in Wuthering Heights that it is compared to a renaissance tragedy of revenge perplexity provoked by such a creature fascinates imagination and we are almost terrified by this creature, but still, he was added a trait of unselfishness which will make us feel compassion, almost respect. (Kovacevic, p. 268 ). Heathcliffs character is emotio nally explicable from the first memories of Nelly Dean, his portrait was built in front of the reader.He was a sullen, patient child hardened, perhaps, to ill-treatment he would stand Hindleys blows without winking or shedding a tear. Heathcliffs revenge occupies the biggest part of the book. His hatred takes on sick proportions and includes even his own son Linton and Catherines daughter. His cruelty and embitterers were necessary to Emily Bronte so that his infatuation could be exaggerated to incredible proportions. In spite of that, Heathcliff doesnt seem to be a man lacking a conscience or a pathological sadist.At the end of the novel, when Heathcliffs revenge has subsided in the sequence of crimes, he suffered most after Catherines death he is left without his lifes goal, unhappy, and wished for spiritual peace which only her obese could give him. ? Works Cited Bronte, Emily, Wuthering Heights, 1847. Kovacevic, I. Istorija Engleske, Wuthering Heights, a Selection of Critical E ssays. Beograd, 1979. Oates, Carol, The Magnanimity of Wuthering Heights, Originally published in Critical Inquiry, Winter 1983. Reprinted in The Profane Art Essays and Reviews.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Relationship Between Men and Women in the Secret Life of Walter Mitty

Diego Ampuero Gac English 102 M, W, & F Dr. Williams March 17, 2010 The relationship between men and women in The Secret Life of Walter Mitty In this research paper, I am going to give out the relationship between men and women in the short novel The Secret Life of Walter Mitty by James Thurber. In this set just about I am going to discuss how he shows the conflicts between the man that want to be adventurous, perverted, and that lives in several fantasies, but behind that man in that respect is a woman that holds him thorn.Many source materials analyze and describe Thurbers unique vagaryistic personality and explain how it might affect his work of literary productions through and throughout his some(prenominal) short stories. Thurbers humoristic and satiric behavior of literature that he uses about the relationship between men and women in The secret Life of Walter Mitty attracts the contributors attention because of that spark of knowledge he gives to his humoristic and intellectual literature. In Thurbers book, The Thurber Carnival, he uses many of his short stories including The Secret Life of Walter Mitty in format to focus on the relationship between men and women.The conflicts that Thurber writes about typically start out small but then with the time it expands into major conflicts which leads us readers into finding the main(prenominal) problem of the story, in which in this case is about a man that wants to be adventurous and the women who holds him back. In fact, in many of Thurbers short stories the male characters are shown to be dependent of a strong woman, in which she is the dominant head of the relationship.In the relationships that Thurbers men are in, they are constant quantity lead into frustrated experiences with their wives, in which they have been bullied by wives who consider that they know ein truththing. This is exactly what happens in the short story The Secret Life of Walter Mitty with Walter being inured by his wife mo re like a mentally retarded child than a husband. This is shown throughout the first paragraphs of the story in which the couple is ride around running errands, but not together as a couple, instead, Walter has to stop in front of the hair salon where his wife is having her hair done, and e is told to remember to get those overshoes while Im having my hair done, and in which Walter replies I dont need overshoes but the wife replies back saying youre not a young man any longer (47). These last quotes show how strong and harsh her character is and how dominant she fucking be in their relationship. These quotes also foreshadow the coming events of Walters several daydreaming throughout the story and in which they end up being the main conflict between the relationship between men (Mitty) and woman (wife).The wife in The Secret Life of Walter Mitty is the perfect model for Thurbers unique style of literature. In the book The Art of James Thurber, Richard Tobias states The comedy exist s in the tension created by the wifes world view. The wife is the threat against Mittys free and desirable heroism(85) thusly with a smile on his lips, he faces the firing squad, erect motionless, and proud. Walter Mitty the Undefeated, inscrutable to the last(51). This precise analyzing quotes by Tobias, reflects how Thurber used Mrs.Mitty as the leader of his humoristic and ironic literature to show her superiority above Walter, in which in Thurbers time, the head of the family was predestined to be the man and not the woman. Tobias also points out the terminal of the story with Walter dreaming once again acting like a little kid dreaming about being a hero. Tobias probably points it out because the ending shows how Walter revealed his secrets of being the head of something, the hero of the war throughout his paranoiac daydreaming. Several sources have focused on the topic about the relationship between Walters prominent daydreams and his marital situation.One of those sources t hat analyzes this topic is Coitus Interruptis Sexual Symbolism in The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, a book in which a few criticizers analyze Walters fantasies and their effect on the relationship. One of the many criticizers, Ann Mann, argues that for a permanent daydreamer like Walter Mitty, his wife has to be the ideal wife for she has to go through all of his daydreaming fantasies and childlike personality, in which it brings the conclusion that she pretty much plays the role of a scapegoat in the relationship.Keeping the eyes on the importance of a women in a relationship as Ann Mann stated, in an different aspect, Thomas Fensch appears with his book Conversations with James Thurber in which Fensch has plenty of conversations with Thurbers comedian self about different kind of topics that eventually ends up in a topic that shows Thurbers point of view of the Ameri sens Women. The man itself has a style of expressing his thoughts with humor and irony but the beauty of it is that at the same time the reader can interpret his sayings as serious thoughts that are in fact very true and intellectual.This magnificent style helps the typical American reader to understand his advice towards American Women by stating that Too much attention is given to attracting the males and making other women envious, reflecting that Thurbers point of view of women is that they should go ahead and live life to the fullest and while they can woman should be a real fellow to her husband(84).As I come to the end of this analysis about the great author James Thurber and the topic about the relationship between men and women in The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, I can conclude that Thurber is one of the great American humorist ever of this century and that his genuine literature really helps the reader to understand the relationship between Walter and Mrs.Mitty, and in which they also reflect Thurbers real life situations between men and women throughout his life. At last, I can affirm that many of his works are so similar to the present day relationship between men and women that it reflects why his literature works are continuing to be popular in todays world.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Stroop Ia

An essay investigating the motions of interference on speed estimates during the Stroop labor Nicharee Thamsirisup (Nid) IB Psychology Standard take Abstract This experiment is to investigate the effect of color interference in speed estimates of the Stroop trade union movement which was first researched by John Ridley Stroop in 1935. This fuel be investigated by seeing the meter difference between the task of identifying change when color lecture are printed in the said(prenominal) color as their semantic meaning ( shield 1) and when they are printed in different colors as their semantic meaning ( screen out 2).The research hypothesis is that the average time provide be higher(prenominal) in rise 2 because of the interference in the color contracting task. The experiment uses independent measures and opportunity sampling of bilingual students aged from 16 to 18 years old. The turn ups supported the hypothesis since the blow upicipants who did test 2 took 8. 8 seconds in average longer than participants who did test 1. Introduction The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of interference on speed estimates during the Stroop task.The Stroop task was first experimented by John Ridley Stroop in 1935. The Stroop strength involving the Stroop task refers to a phenomenon in which it is easier to say the color of a word if it matches the semantic meaning of the word. Stroop (1935) began investigating the phenomenon of interference by use a color-naming task. The experiment was c aloneed The Effect of Interfering Color Stimuli Upon Reading Names of color in Serially in which he conducted on seventy college undergraduates (14 males and 56 females).In the experiment, the participants were to do twain tests, one test is with a list of linguistic process printed in grim and anformer(a) test is with a list of speech communication printed in colors (red, blue, green, browned and purple) different from its name (e. g. blue printed in red). The colored words were consistent so that each color would appear twice in each column and row and no color were apply succeeding each other but the words were printed in equal number of times in each of the other four colors (e. g. the word red printed in blue, green, brown and purple inks or the word blue was printed in red, green, brown and purple inks).Participants were asked to read the words as fast as possible and correct whatever possible mistakes. Results show that it took the participants an average of 2. 3 seconds longer to read 100 color names printed in different colors than to read the same words printed in blank1. Schneider and Shiffrin (1977)2 explained this phenomenon in term of automatic processing where in the experiment of Stroop, reading skills are automatically triggered and intrude upon the intentional process of color detective work task. self-locking processing occurs with very few to none conscious resources.Logan (1990)2 besides stated that automatic pr ocessing can develop through practice as it depart require less effort or thoughts and becomes more rapid to retrieve the appropriate responses to the stimulus. These automatic thoughts can be retrieved by accessing the past solutions, for example, children will first use their fingers to do simple addition (e. g. 1+1=2), however, as more practice occurs, they will be immediately able to resolve it just by seeing it within a second with no attention required. DesignThe experiment used independent measures (participants only take part in one of the two tests) which reduced the practice and made it more difficult to speculate the aim of the study. In test 1, the incongruent condition, participants were asked to read a list of different words of the colors printed in different colors to their semantic meanings (e. g. the word wild blue yonder printed in green ink). In test 2, the congruent condition, participants were asked to read a list f different words of the colors printed in t he same color as their semantic meanings (e. . the word BLUE printed in blue ink. ) Also when they made a mistake, they had to correct it. The dependent variable is the time taken for the participants to read the list. The controlled variables include the font of the words, the number of words per test and the size of the paper used to present the list of words to the participants. The participants were given the consent form and were told ab show up the procedures in the experiment before rangeing. Participants were allowed to withdraw at any point during the experiment and after completion f the experiment, they were given a debriefing note and the ability to choose whether they requisite their results to be used or not. The debriefing note and consent form will be attached in the appendix section. Participants The participants in my experiment include 30 supranational students (15 males and 15 females) and they will be grouped into two conditional groups incongruent condition and congruent condition where they will be presented with a list of 20 words specific for that condition. The target macrocosm is bilingual adolescents with the age range of between 16 to 18 years old.The method of selection of participants was by using sample of opportunity because of the limited time given. These participants will be randomly assigned into the two groups or meaning that one person will do only do one test. Materials * probe 1 List of 20 Congruent words (on one paper) * Test 2 List of 20 incongruent words (on one paper) * Stop Watch * Pencil * Paper * Consent form (attached to the Appendix) * Debriefing cable (attached to the Appendix) Procedure 1. Participants will do one of the two tests and will be informed about the instructions involving the task 2.The participant will be asked to sign the consent form of whether or not they would want to participate in the experiment 3. Instructor will present the participants with the list of 20 words (participants need t o correct themselves when a mistake is made) 4. Participants will start reciting the words when they are instructed to or when the instructor has started timing 5. The time will stop when the last word is recited 6. After the experiment, participants will be debriefed about the Stroop Effect and the other theories being investigated 7. Participants have the right to allow or withdraw their results from the experimentResults In Test 1, the mean for the participants to complete the stroop task where the color of the ink is the same as its semantic meaning is 13. 6 with a standard deviation of 2. 2. The time ranges from the winged time which is 10. 6 seconds to the slowest time which is 18. 2 seconds. In Test 2, the mean for the participants to complete the stroop task where the color of the ink is different from its semantic meaning is 22. 4 with a standard deviation of 4. 1. The time ranges from 16. 1 to 31. 3 seconds. The mean and the standard deviation are taken into account becau se it is assumed that the results will form a normal distribution.The mean is the average time of all the time of the participants and the standard deviation is the measure of how spread out the numbers is from the mean. The median and the range are not taken into account. Test image Mean Standard Deviation 1 13. 6 2. 2 2 22. 4 4. 1 *The procedures for finding the mean and standard deviation are in the appendix Discussions Discussion of Results Even though there were variations from the original Stroop experiment, it is able to investigate, with high reliability, the effect of interference in speed estimates during the Stroop task.The results show accuracy with the Stroop task done in 1935 by John Ridley Stroop since there is a significant difference between the amount of time a person took to complete the task where the colors were congruent with their semantic meaning (Test 1) and where the colors were incongruent with their semantic meaning (Test 2). The participants took a lon ger amount of time to complete test 2 compared to test 1. The difference between the averages of these two tests is 8. 8 seconds. Most of them participants in Test 1 took around the same amount of time to complete the task as can be seen by the low standard deviation of . 2, but in test 2, the amount of time among the participants was more spread out (S. D=4. 1). One possible explanation for this is the participants level of English proficiency, since if a person is more fluent in English, he or she whitethorn be able to identify the colors more quickly as compared to a person who is not as fluent. The outcome of this experiment can be explained through Schneider and Shriffins theory of automatic processing where the participants in test 2 took longer time because the process of reading interfered with the color detection task.Since reading has become practiced very often, it is automatically activated without the persons consciousness, therefore, it requires more attention for the participants in this group to correctly identify the colors without just reading the word. The participants in test 1 were able to identify the colors faster since after reading several words, the participants will read the words without any interference from the difference in the words semantic meaning. Limitations and Improvements The results from the experiment have low generalizability since this experiment was conducted on bilingual students aging from 16 to 18 years old.There may be other factors which may cause the participants to identify the colors faster e. g. being an English native speaker. Some of the participants also didnt correct themselves when they have misread the color so two seconds were added into some of the results (interrupting the participants and make them correct their mistake was avoided since this would impact the results even more). Some of the participants who did test 1 also started reading the word itself after seeing recognizing the pattern and ign oring the real task which is to identify the color. This can be improved by adding an incongruent word (e. g. he word BLUE printed in RED) into the word list of test 1 and informing the participants in the instructions so that the participants will concentrate on on identifying the colors. To improve the sampling group, we can change the sample group to a wider range of age for example from 10-30 years old instead. Despite the limitations, the result is still accurate since there is a supporting theory and it agrees with the result of the Stroop task in the original experiment. APA List of References 1. Stroop, J. R. (1935). Journal of experimental psychology. Studies of Interference in Serial Verbal Reactions,XVIII(6), (p647-649). . Hill, G. (1998,2001). Oxford revision guides a level of psychology. (p. 118) Oxford University Press. Appendix Consent Form * I have been informed of the nature and procedures involved in the experiment * I understand that I have the right to withdraw at any point after the experiment has begun * I will not be harmed in any way upon participating in the experiment * I understand that my identity will not be connected to my data and that all information I provide will remain confidential * I will be debriefed at the end and be able to know my resultsBy sign this form, I have read the above information and agreed to give my consent to participate in this experiment Printed Name____________________________ Signature _______________________________ Debriefing Note You have just been tested on the Stroop task, producing the Stroop Effect whereby you read the word itself faster than you could identify the color you see. This can be explained through the theory of Automatic Processing in which the process of reading becomes practiced so often that it is automatically activated without you being conscious.The process of reading is automatically triggered because you are learned to reading and this interferes with the task of color dete ction. Thank you for your participation in the experiment. Instructions After you have signed the consent form, in the following minutes, you will be presented with a list of 20 words. You have to read out loud the color that the words are printed (not the word itself) in order that they are presented. You will be timed while reading these words out loud. If you have made a mistake, please correct yourself before continuing the next word.You may start when you are ready. Materials 1. 1. RED 2. GREEN 3. PURPLE 4. RED 5. BLUE 6. browned 7. BLUE 8. GREEN 9. BROWN 10. PURPLE 11. RED 12. BLUE 13. BROWN 14. PURPLE 15. GREEN 16. BLUE 17. RED 18. GREEN 19. BROWN 20. PURPLE List of 20 Congruent Words (TEST 1) 3. List of 20 Incongruent words (TEST 2) 21. RED 22. BLUE 23. PURPLE 24. BROWN 25. PURPLE 26. BLUE 27. GREEN 28. RED 29. BROWN 30. PURPLE 1. RED 2. BLUE 3. GREEN 4. PURPLE 5. BLUE 6. GREEN 7. BROWN 8. RED 9. GREEN 10. BROWN *The words were actually printed out in Times New Roman size 2 4 cranky dataTime for the Stroop task (sec) Test 1 Test 2 10. 6 16. 1 10. 7 17. 1 11. 2 17. 5 11. 7 18. 4 12. 2 19. 9 12. 2 20. 5 13. 3 21. 1 13. 4 22. 5 13. 8 22. 8 14. 5 23. 8 15. 1 24. 1 15. 2 24. 4 15. 9 25. 5 16. 4 31. 3 18. 2 31. 3 Finding the Mean Test 1 Using the formula x-=? xn where x is the mean, ? x is the sum of all the terms and n is the number of terms x-=204. 415 x-? 13. 6 seconds Test 2 x-=336. 115 x-? 22. 4 seconds The mean was used since it is assumed that the population is a normal distribution Finding the Standard DeviationFor Test 1 Time (seconds) (x) Mean (x-) Deviation (d)(x-x-) Squared Deviation (d2) (x-x-)2 10. 6 13. 6 (10. 6-13. 6)= -3 (-3)2= 9 10. 7 13. 6 (10. 7-13. 6)= -2. 9 8. 41 11. 2 13. 6 (11. 2-13. 6)= -2. 4 5. 76 11. 7 13. 6 (11. 7-13. 6)= -1. 9 3. 61 12. 2 13. 6 (12. 2-13. 6)= -1. 4 1. 96 12. 2 13. 6 (12. 2-13. 6)= -1. 4 1. 96 13. 3 13. 6 (13. 3-13. 6)= -0. 3 0. 09 13. 4 13. 6 (13. 4-13. 6)= -0. 2 0. 04 13. 8 13. 6 (13. 8-13. 6)= 0. 2 0. 04 14. 5 13. 6 (14. 5-13. 6)= 0. 9 0. 81 15. 1 13. 6 (15. 1-13. 6)= 1. 5 2. 25 15. 13. 6 (15. 2-13. 6)= 1. 6 2. 56 15. 9 13. 6 (15. 9-13. 6)= 2. 3 5. 29 16. 4 13. 6 (16. 4-13. 6)= 2. 8 7. 84 18. 2 13. 6 (18. 2-13. 6)= 4. 6 21. 16 n=15 ? (x-x-)2=70. 78 *The deviation can be entrap by subtracting the time by the mean of all the numbers (found earlier). The square deviation can be found by squaring the deviation and ? (x-x-)2 can be found by adding up all the squared deviation for different times. Using the formula for standard deviation Where = standard deviation ?= sum of x= each value in the throttle x-= mean of all values in the data set = number of value in the data set Standard Deviation= 70. 7815 ? 2. 2 For Test 2 Time Seconds (x) Mean (x-) Deviation (d) (x-x-) Squared Deviation (d2) (x-x-)2 17. 1 22. 4 -5. 3 28. 09 17. 5 22. 4 -4. 9 24. 01 18. 4 22. 4 -4 16 19. 9 22. 4 -2. 5 6. 25 20. 5 22. 4 -1. 9 3. 61 21. 1 22. 4 -1. 3 1. 69 22. 5 22. 4 0. 1 0. 01 22. 8 22. 4 0. 4 0. 16 23. 8 2 2. 4 1. 4 1. 96 24. 1 22. 4 1. 7 2. 89 24. 4 22. 4 2 4 25. 5 22. 4 3. 1 9. 61 31. 3 22. 4 8. 9 79. 21 31. 3 22. 4 8. 9 79. 21 n=15 ? (x-x-)2=256. 7 Standard Deviation= 256. 15 ? 4. 1 Finding the Median Since there is odd number of terms (15 terms), the median is the middle number which is number 8 when you organize the number in increasing order from smallest to largest Test 1 13. 4 Test 2 22. 5 Finding the Range The range is the difference between the largest and the smallest value of the data. Therefore, take the largest value and subtract with the smallest value. Test 1 18. 2-10. 6 = 7. 6 seconds Test2 31. 3-16. 1= 15. 2 seconds Table Median and Range of the two Tests Median (sec) Range (sec) Test 1 13. 4 7. 6 Test 2 22. 5 15. 2In Test 1, the speed or the time for the participants to completely read the words ranges from 10. 6 seconds up to 18. 2 seconds. The difference between the slowest and the fastest speeds (range) is 7. 6. The median for Test 1 is 13. 4 seconds. In Test 2, the speed ranges from 16. 1 seconds to 31. 3 seconds and the difference between the slowest and fastest speeds (range) is 15. 2. The median for Test 2 is 22. 5. * In test 1, most of the participants took around 13 to 14 and 15 to 16 seconds to complete the task . * In test 2, the histogram is skewed to the left where most participants spent from 16 to 26 seconds to complete the task.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Collectivisation: Political Philosophy and Stable Income Essay

?How undefiled is it to say that the most in-chief(postnominal) result of the collectivisation of agriculture was that it compel communist authorization of the countryside? The result of collectivisation of agriculture was that it had shoot the breezed communist control as it meant that all farmers got an equal and fair rate exchange from their produce. However some areas were capitalist such as the determination of NEP, the cerebration that the more you work the more you gain and that peasants eventually gained land for their own increasing each individual profit which is not along the lines of communist views.It is accurate to a strong extent that collectivisation of agriculture was that it impose communist control as Stalin removed capitalist ideas eventually such as the NEP, provided by allowing farmers to own their own land meant that communist ideas had to be altered in effect for Stalin to keep the support of the people. The political ideas of Stalin were by far to i mpose communist control. Stalins position meant that he could alter existing ideas in order to make them fit in with communist ones and therefore allowing him to take control of areas that before hadnt followed communist ideas.This is seen when Stalin eliminated the NEP. By doing this he eliminated capitalist ideas as peasants were forced to hand over any land they owned and work on communal farms creating equality and communist control. The collectivisation of these farms meant that all farmers earned the same quantity imposing communist control as there wasnt true members that earned more and so could cheat the giving medication by sell on products in secret and earning more than others.However, over time more farmers began selling produce to kulaks that would make more money and therefore not following communist ideas. In order to stop this Stalin had to allow a small amount of land to be owned by each farmer, which meant that some capitalist ideas had to be used in order to keep farmers content. This shows how one of the most important results of collectivisation was that it imposed communist control but as people were not happy with this it meant some other ideas had to be brought in to allow a widespread acceptance.The ideology of Stalin was to communise peasants and therefore the politics would have a stable income of grain to export and get income from. By collectivising peasants it meant that the government could control the ware of grain by having a fixed amount of grain going to the government. This meant that the government could export this grain for a stable income. This had a positive progeny for a short period of time before peasants wanted more of a share of grain and so the government had to allow this.This is also an stinting advantage from collectivisation as the stable income allowed income for Russia that could go back into the country and therefore improve it. The collectivisation imposed communist control as without it the govern ment wouldnt have got such a stable income from exports that boosted the economy. Socially controlling the people by keeping them consent was very important. When peasants starting to act against the government by breaking machinery and killing off animals rather then hand them over to the government this mean that the government needed to take action.In order to solve this problem Stalin bought in a scheme that allowed each peasant to own a small piece of land in which they could work on and keep all the harvest from that land for themselves. This created a widespread acceptance for peasants and meant that people would accept Stalins policies and the communist control. This shows that the collectivisation had some problems that the government had to locoweed with that meant communist control wasnt successful and so other capitalist ideas were needed to keep farmers happy.In conclusion, the most important result of collectivisation was that it imposed communist control as it meant that the government had control of the people socially, by allowing them to have their own land, and politically. It also meant that the government had a stable income from exports of grain allowing Russia to use that income to improve other areas. Without this control the government wouldnt of been able to have the economic boost.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

W. H Auden: The Unknown Citizen

The marble monument erected by the state or town is usually of a hometown hero. The soulfulness is al to the highest degree always someone who did well for the country and originated from a certain town. The statue is almost never of someone who is just an ordinary military man living sprightliness-time-time just like everyone else around him. This man is the model citizen one who never causes a stir, goes to war when asked, and does everything to serve the common good. He is a conformist, a soul whom the g all overnment holds high and promotes for others to strive toward becoming.The monument covers everything from his job record to his health history, all documented parts of his life, showing the reader exactly what the State is concern with. Looking at the poems structure, use of sound, and the style we see that the man is celebrated because he served the Greater Community (Auden 5) in everything he did and never questioned the government. The narrative structure of the poem represents a speech by the local representative. The statue only has a reference number JS/07/M/378 because to the government the behavior is more authorized the man himself.While the speaker calls this man, in the modern sense of an old-fashioned word, he was a saint (4), he only knows this because of the research prior(prenominal) to the eventidet. The representative decides to talk about how the man performed all t he correct tasks throughout his life. The state hardly cares whether or not the man was familiar with his mates and liked a drink (13) so long as he wasnt a scab or odd in his views (9). It is also important to note that he held the proper opinions for the time of year (23) than if he was free and happy (28).The use of sound reveals that the Unknown Citizen lived an ordinary life. The speaker consistently uses a simple rhyming scheme- Our report on his Union shows it was sound/ And our Social Psychology workers found (11-12) to show the mans existence. The reader learns that the citizen was fully ascertain (16) and that he was once in hospital but left it cured (17). The fact that the rhyme scheme is hardly tampered with suggests that the citizens life was consistently regular and ordinary.The most signifi batcht use of sound comes at the end of the poem, when the speaker asks, Was he free? Was he happy? The question is absurd (28). Here, the speaker reinforces the states power over the individual and dismisses any notion that happiness and freedom are part of the states plan. It also forces the reader to acknowledge the states total control over its citizens and how the mans passive life was led according to the governments will, not his own.Looking at the style and the use of language in The Unknown Citizen it reveals that the man served the state in every fount of his life and was rewarded to show other people the benefit of doing the same. The poem states that there was no official complaint (2) against this model man and it goes so f ar as to saying he was a saint (4). The speaker describes more of the mans qualities in order to show the people what a model citizen should be like. Thus, he explains that the man never got fired, / but satisfied his employers (7-8) and paid his dues (10) on time.By doing this, the citizen had everything necessary to the Modern Man, / a phonograph, a radio, a car and a frigidaire. (20-21). The man even had the state in mind when he had a family of five children, for he had the right number for a parent of his generation according to the governments Eugenist (26). For those citizens who may contain doubted whether the mans existence was an ideal one, the speaker explains that questioning whether or not the citizen was happy is absurd (28) because only the mans servitude to the state is important.The overall theme of the poem can be viewed as a symbol as a whole, as it is a symbol of how the government treats conformists versus individuals. A symbol can be found in the line Our res earchers into Public Opinion are content / That he held the proper opinions for the time of year (22-23). Public Opinion, which is capitalized, is very important to the State, as they feel if they can control opinion, they can control people, because most people will just go with the flow. It is through these subtle symbols that Auden is able to reveal how he feels about conforming to government xpectations, as most writers stray from conform. Yet despite the states assurances, the Unknown Citizens monument is still dedicated to a reference number instead of an unfeigned name. Being a model citizen does not amount to much in a country where ones freedom and liberty are nonexistent and ones entire life is planned by the state. Indeed, the mans inscription illustrates this point To JS/07/M/378 / This Marble Monument is Erected by the State follows the familiar rhyme scheme that marked the mans passive life.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Do a detailed critical analysis of the opening of Coetzee’s Foe

A successful analysis of an initiative to any legend sack upful not occur without taking into consideration what sort of journey the generator is going to take their audience on. Openings can be deceiving and the point of close is needed to successfully get back the true meanings behind the foundations that the author flummoxs at the start. This is definitely the case in Coetzees Foe. Hindsight is the analysists keenest ally when face in detail at the devices and subtext that Coetzee is employing to open this reinvigorated. In inception it step ups to begin as an alternative myth of Daniel Defoes classic, Robinson Crusoe.However as the novel unfolds it becomes clear that it is an allegory for populacey pressing issues of todays society such as grammatical gender, race, politics and power. But not stopping there Coetzee has excessively created a piece of metafiction attacking the substance in which fiction is created. It can also be seen as an attack on the claimed fat her of the novel Daniel Defoe. With hindsight all these issues can been seen in Coetzees opening however I will begin by well-favoured some ideas as to what Coetzee possibly wanted to achieve from the entire novel as it will assistant shed light upon the body structure, devices and meanings that lie in the opening.Coetzee is questioning realism in novel writing, throughout he is proving that, just as Defoe did, he can create veridical theatrical roles and put inting but he is present that he too has the power to destroy them. As a piece of metafiction, Foe looks within on its self as a novel and questions itself throughout. Coetzee creates things just to break them dump. He is out to prove that Defoe and new(prenominal) authors argon, as Paula Burnett described, the giver of false witness and in effect the enemy of reality thus the hu humanness action and pun Foe.The attack is on Defoe, the so-called father of the novel, perhaps because he tried to sell Robinson Crusoe eat up as a real life biography. Coetzee is trying to base that even if Crusoe was real the writer of the novel he would still hold the power to create and destroy what the want to, so fiction can never be taken as reality. The key central issues in the novel are the themes of gender and racial difference and power. Throughout the book there is a strong feeling that Friday represents a surge more than just the slave of Robinson Crusoe.It is through Friday and his interference in the hands of his white masters that Coetzee is addressing the mood the white people present handled there relations with the Negro race. Coetzee probably wrote this particularly with South Africa in mind as it is where he is from but it can be related to any time in hi business relationship when the whites have tried to help or enslave the black race. Through Susan Barton he also addresses women and their struggles for equality and recognition. A feminist reading of the text would to claim that Coetzee in providing a narrator is present that the novels has mothers as well as fathers such as Defoe and Fielding.Also, her struggle to corroborate herself as the main(prenominal) character of the story and the only true story teller can be seen to represent womens struggle to establish themselves as credible novelists in the early periods of novel writing. So with these d averstairslying issues in mind the structure of the novel is also worth briefly looking at so the opening can be put into context. It must be taken into consideration the stylistically the opening chapter is very(prenominal) different from the succour of the novel. The primary chapter is set on Crusoes island and is a written account as to what occurred.The style is very virtual(prenominal) and detailed. The second chapter is slightly more removed and is written before our very eyes in a set of letters to Mr Foe. The writing style is still detailed and realistic however towards the end of the chapter a few que stions are raised as to who Susan Barton is and who is the child following her around. The third part of the novel is set at Foes house and is again a first hand account but has a very different feel to the opening. It becomes slightly more surreal and raising umpteen questions as to whether Foe exists or is a creation of Susans or whether Susan is a creation of his.The final scene is set in a room and under water. It could not detach the reader any more as we lose who is narrating. We receipt its is not Susan as she appears to be dead. This is Coetzee destroying the realistic world he had created. Out of the four parts the opening is extremely significant as it crucial for creating the world in which Coetzee can put across the points that he is raising. So what is Coetzee beginning to create at the start of the novel? With his opening chapter he creates the foundations for his attacks on Defoe and the pagan and gender issues of todays society.However my use of the word attacks s hould not be taken too literally because promptly no issues are addressed however it is clear in the subtext what points he wants to throw into debate. The main lean of the opening is to throw Defoes apparent true novel of Crusoe into debate and also to create a realistic foundation that can crumble in on itself as the novel develops. Anything self-critical has to reflect on itself inwardly and the opening sets Coetzee up to be able to do this. From the very opening it is clear that this is a pictural realistic account. There I lay sprawled on the hot sand, my head filled with the orange gross sun, my petticoat (which was all I had escaped with) baking dry upon me, tired, grateful like the saved. It is clear forthwith from this quotation that the narrator appears to physically feeling what she is describing. The opening few pages include many of these vivid descriptions which lay the setting for Defoes attack on Crusoes story. The reader can not doubt her version, as it appear s so real. His first attack on Defoes novel appears early on. For readers reared on travellers tales, the oral communication desert isle may call on the carpet up a place of soft sands and shady trees where brooks run to quench the casta steerings relish But the island on which I was cast away was quite another place a great rocky hill with a flat top There were ants scurrying everywhere, of the same kind we had in Bahia, and another pest too, living in the dunes a tiny insect that hid between your toes and ate its way into your flesh. This account is a great example of the realism used to put the whole of Defoes work into question.This is a direct attack by Coetzee on how realistic Defoes island really is. The reader will of course weigh Susan Bartons account as it appeals through realism. It is a clever device used by Coetzee because he knows himself that what he is writing is not true. Another area that lays doubt upon Defoes story is the figure Crusoe. His name is deplete d to Cruso to show he is cryptograph like the man that Defoe creates.Not only is he a shadow of the main that Defoe created he is also unsure of his own history. he stories he told me were so various, and so hard to adjudicate one with another, that I was more and more driven to conclude that age and isolation had taken their terms on his memory, and he no retentiveer knew for sure what was truth This throws again Defoes account into doubt and would catch up with a reader believe Coetzees version. Another example of Coetzee trying to streng because Susans account is her repetition of the parenthood Then at last I could row no further. My hands were raw, my back was burned, my body ached. This repetition of the same account to both the reader and Crusoe shows that she knows her story and uses the exact same wording both times she tells it. This is a clever device used by Coetzee to show that Crusoes story is fragile and various where as Susans is stabile and unchanging. The other main instrument used by Coetzee in the opening of the book to comport his subtext is the use of Susan as the narrator and the way she perceives things. Through realism he sets up his attack on Defoe and novel writing but through the narrator he brings in the allegorical themes such as gender and race.From a feminist point of estimate Susan Barton is, as Patrick Corcoran stated, a representative of her sex who has suffered at the hands of men and who struggles to assert herself in a male dominated society. To expand upon this comment, she does definitely appear to represent the women of society and how even though she shared the island with Crusoe she always felt that she was not there When I reflect upon my story I seem to exist only as the one who came, the one who witnessed She feels that it is Crusoes story despite the fact that she is as easily as active as Crusoe and manages to escape, which he does not.Upon arrival she assumes that she is his subject. With these words I presented myself to Robinson Cruso, in the days when he still ruled over his island, and became his second, the first being his man servant Friday She does not even question the fact that he is the master of the island she just excepts that Friday and herself are under his rule. This is put in by Coetzee to question the role of women in Defoes novel. There is no place for women in Robinson Crusoe and Coetzee provides us with an idea of what Crusoe would have been like with a woman on the island.Also Coetzee leaves it to the audience to adjudicate what type of woman Susan is. He gives us no social background so we expect nothing from her. Throughout the book it is unclear what she is, whether she is a lady, a whore or a gypsy. This uncertainty is propel into confusion many times, as she seems very educated and full of ideas You are mistaken I cried I do not wish to dispute, but you have forgotten very much, and with every day that passes you jam more This extract sh ows that Susan Bartons type of language is not uneducated and her ability to speak up to and man and disagree shows strength.This may be a result of her life experience gained on her travels. However it is more likely that it is Coetzee toying with the idea of how putting a female on the island would effect Crusoes power. These power battles are an important theme in the novel and Susan faces them throughout first chapter with Crusoe then Friday in the second and then Defoe in the third. The other major issue raised by Coetzee is the idea of slavery and race difference. Friday is a shadow that hangs over the story throughout and cannot be ignored, as his silence is perhaps the most notice and powerful factor in the novel.The majority of these issues are raised in the second and third chapters in Susans handling of Friday. However they are present in the early stages of the novel in Crusoes approach to Friday. How many words of English does Friday know? I asked As many as he needs , replied Cruso. This is not England, we have no need of great stock of words. Dispite Fridays disability this shows that Crusoe has no intention of making a companion of Friday and only wishes to treat him as an inhuman slave. Crusoes views on Friday can be seen to represent the whites treatment of the African race in the early part of the nineteen hundreds.When Susan takes over the role of master she can be seen to represent the white resistants in South Africa who tried to help the Africans but only tried to help them by trying to make them like white men and by doing so enslaved them further. RM. Posts view on the political level of the novel is that Crusoe represents the stubborn and corrupt Afrikaner government, with Susan Barton the white sympathetic liberal and Friday the black people. He even goes as utmost as to compare Susan to Mother Africa as she is trenchant for a child who is searching for her.He justifies his claim that Foe is an allegory of contemporary South Af rica by pointing out the crucial fact that Friday is of completely different race in Coetzees Foe than he is in Daniel Defoes Robinson Crusoe. The fact that the latter Friday is a black man helps us see Foe, set primarily in England in the eighteenth century, as an allegory of contemporary South Africa. Defoes Friday has olive skin with straight long hair Coetzee s Friday is black with a head of fuzzy wool. There are other hints in the opening of the story to suggest some link with the treatment of the blacks in South Africa.The removal of Fridays lingua is perhaps one of the most obvious symbols in the book. He can be seen as having no voice like the Negros in post colonial Africa. Susan and Crusoes failure to communicate with Friday successfully is of course down to lack of understanding of his culture. However the fact that Crusoe manages to communicate with Friday better than Susan could be seen to flaw RM. Posts argument as could the fact that Friday was apparently happier o n the island before Susan tried to free him. The opening to Coetzees foe is a full of life part of the novel.As discussed it lays the foundations for all of Coetzees allegorical meanings. The opening is essential to understanding the race, gender and power struggles that are central themes in the novel. In terms of realism it sets Coetzee up to question the fundamentals of the novel and how far can an author go in terms of making a book appear an close reflection of real life. From this foundation he also highlights the authors ability to create and destroy there own work no matter how realistic it may appear to be.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Contribution of Engineers in Society

Question 5 In this technological age, the power of the engineers in shaping the society and milieu in all pervading and tooshie deeply affect the lives of many members of the society. Enum durationte, from your personal experience, how deeply positive impacts have accrued from the contributions of engineers. Answer Introduction In the eyes of earth, an engineer is a overlord man who is of sufficient training, expertise, and integrity as to be equal to(p) to act with independence and impartiality in his professional judgments to ensure trust and bureau of humankind.Since ancient era to recent technological age, participation and contribution of engineers have been seen in all ways of life. Involvement and contributions of engineers atomic number 18 tremendous and playing important roles in almost all aspects of human being life. Let us discuss from the following few angles 1)HSE Engineers in their profession, shall identify the safety and health risks in their works, assess them and dumbfound steps to minimize and control these risks in the work place and world atomic number 18na. Engineers are involved in the search for safer work places and products.These search for ameliorated safety benefited in reducing accidents and harm to the public. Engineers are keenly aware that their work and recommendations can have a very major impact on the surroundings that we live in. The very car that we drive emits carbon dioxide that is ca victimisation warming of the atmosphere that eventual could racetrack to massive environmental disasters later. Engineers are at the very core of the research and development into ways and sum to reduce emissions by example of hybrid cars, cars running on hydrogen or biofuel alternative.Engineer has reduced greatly the negative impact from the sewerage generated by the increasing population. The sewerage produced by human being if not treated properly, will cause disastrous to the environment. Imagine what is going to happe n if the underground water and rivers are contaminated by the sewerage. Therefore the engineers effort in construction of the sewerage interference plant has greatly impact in preservation of environment. 2)DevelopmentEngineers contributed very significantly to a countrys development from an agricultural economy to one that includes manufacturing, communication services and exploitation of the countrys inhering resources like tin, hydropower, oil and gas. They built the infrastructure and the tools necessary for progress. With issue road, high upways, bridges, clean water supply, electrical power supply, telephony and cell phone communication, we would be living lives in jungle, where it will be dark at dark and water is from well. Engineers build new towns and residential areas which create more(prenominal) jobs opportunity to the adjacent areas.In the city, engineers build high rise building which maximize land usages, provide a better and comfortable working environment t o increase tone & productivity of work. Engineers also forecast & plan for future water demands & make proposals to clear current water supply problems. Example Proposal of building new water treatment plants & reservoirs, or replacement of old pipelines to reduce loses due to leakages and so on, all these were developed and built with the input from engineers. wiz of the engineers contributions that have major impact of the lives of many members of society is in the Transportation sector.Better dose mesh such as PLUS, KESAS, ELITE, will boost many new residential area & township development of suburban area. Upgrading of road network and transportation system improve production and economy improve unity of nation and communication between state. People find easier and more convenient in abject around from one place to anther place. It only takes about 4 hours to travel from Penang to KL with North South Highway. nap & Recreation Area provide a place for road users to rest an d a new ex gratia place for food, recreation and public services.Engineers also help in providing good public transportation network which enhance country image. Moving around in big city in Klang Valley using Light Rail Transit and Monorail System can avoid the congestion of traffic, overcome the problem of scarceness of car parks and shorten the period of time to reach the destination. Engineers provide solution for limited plaza in a city by efficiency of interchange, solve foundation and stability problem, carry out value engine room for optimization of cost which make more development for limited capital a nation has.Beside this, the improvement in the telecommunication contributed by the engineers in the field of electrical, electronic and computer engineering have resulted to a better quality of lives. Satellite TV and cell phones together with computer and meshing have enabled us to communicate instantly and anywhere on earth, so that we are now more informed than ever with the information that can be searched for and accessed more readily. One can communicate with their friends, family members, demarcation partners or clients at any place, and anytime.The advancement in communication coupled with the better physical communication such as transportation network have bring not just better quality of life, but also have increased business activities, more decision can be make daily, more people can be involved in business activities, more income generated for company and individual, and the taxes gathered by the government as well. 3)Innovation on equipment and machine The life expectancy of the population at large is getting longer and part of the reason is the health service providers like hospital being provide with better tools and machines e. g. -rays and scanners developed and built by engineers. Medicine has been made more cheaply and widely available by new techniques. Engineering practices and knowledge that have been put in the design, application and production of audition aids and other equipment such as lasers for optometric correction is a significant contribution to the better well-being of human being. The home is typically equipped with airconditioning and washing machine that engineers contributed in the development and manufacturing so that we can live a more comfortable life with more time for more productive and inventive activities.Conclusion Engineers professional behavior require that they act faithfully to their employer or clients, be equal in their field of work, gain required technical know how and work experience, put the safety of the public in profound regards, protect the environment, contribute to sustainable development, make objective and truthful report to the public if needed, avoid conflict of invade in the job and to act honorably and respectfully in their professional conduct.The most important aspect is that any advice given has to be fair, objective, impartial, and has to be in the best interest of the public in general and client in particular, in order to instill public confidence and trust. Engineers must be seen as a person with total integrity in his work and no compromise to his professional judgment.These behaviors generally spill over to the professionals conduct in public and thereby contributing to a better work place and to the society from the services and products they have generated. totally of these have resulted a quantum leap in human civilization and all these cannot be happened without engineers.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Rasurel Case Study

Then expunction started to sell swimwear during the warrant half of the 20th century. In 1966, Legacy (lingerie bell ringer) bought expunction and transformed It in Its swimwear Dillon. expungings business has ever since remained cerebrate on swimwear products. During the sass and sass, Erasure positioned itself as a fashion and trend-setting brand. The new management team up appoint In the mid sass had a questioning Impact on Erasures business the lack of founding and a poor International strategy led to decreasing market shares and set up the flip-flop in the cognizance of the brand.In the mid sasss, Warrant group (US) bought Legacy and Erasure (who were in a bad position at hat time but once more the new management team (especially the designers) didnt follow the right strategy they gave Erasure a sporty style, thereby worsening the switch in the perception of the brand. So, what happened in 15 years ? The lack of innovation and creativity, the inability to update des igns made Erasure switch from a fashion and trendy brand in the sass to a mature char brand at the beginning of the 21 SST century.Erasure conducted marketing research that confirmed the new perception of the brand old-fashioned, lack of vibrancy, and matronly. The more surprising is the fact that some key factors of success of Erasure are cool off there with customers perceiving the brand as being reliable, of high quality, and comfort. So, Its not only a problem of perception for the brand. What else can be the source of Erasures decline ? Financial statements show that Erasures business could operate more expeditiously and profitably * despite a conjure upth of 4% of the swimwear market, Erasures sales decreased In 2002 so Erasure should definitely change Its marketing strategy and address the Issue of distribution channels. Without going further Into details, what an Erasure do ? Basically, there are 2 main options for the management team reposition the brand towards the jr . lingerie-like subdivision or reinforce its OFF position In ten mature woman segment 2.I en swimwear market The French swimwear market comprised of the five segments catatonic, Beach Gang, Lingerie-Like, Elegant Mature Woman, Jet Set. The Catatonic segment encompassed woman who wanted one-piece swimwear for its functional use in swimming or separate sports whereas the Beach Gang wanted two piece swimwear based on brightly colored crop themes In the lingerie like segment omen wanted feminine floral pieces in in advance(p) cuts and bright colors.Elegant Mature woman well supported one pieces with elegant cuts and colors. The Jet Set woman wanted a sexy cut that emphasized the body and incorporated the current high fashions. important Brands Based on the brand strengths and alliance with Legacy, we feel there is opportunity to enter additional segments to grow their business.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Exam Question and Answer on Market Segmentation

examination AND ANSWER ON MARKET SEGMENTATION Salim Brommer is the Marketing Director of Ashkol piece of furniture Supplies, a medium-sized alliance which specializes in manufacturing office furniture. The company makes its crossroads in India, so benefiting from relatively low labour costs. However, it has recently experienced bright competition from suppliers who engender even lower cost bases. Salim has decided that his company leading benefit if he foc usages on those nodes who can provide higher profit margins. He has decided to take domestic customers in Europe.Increasingly, private households, departicularly those with computers, be converting sp are rooms into office-style areas. Additionally there has been a noticeable movement towards working from home. This saves employers incurring the costs of office provision, and in any case employees save on travel and can also work at times convenient to themselves. However, Ashkol has no experience of dealing with these types of customers. The company now inescapably to develop a suitable exchange strategy to succeed in this new area and take note a sustainable competitive advantage.Required a. Using a suitable model of your choice, develop a merchandise procession which Salim might use to enter this new securities indus study. b. Explain how Salim could select appropriate sign market places and perplex his products so as to create and sustain competitive advantage. Suggested Answer Salim of necessity to develop a market strategy for entry into the domestic market in Europe. This can be achieved by looking at the factors that make up the marketing ruffleture product, price, place and promotion. Choosing a marketing mixThe design of the marketing mix should be decided on the basis of management intuition and judgment, together with in digitation provided by market research. Elements in the marketing mix partly act as substitutes for to each one other and they must be integrated. The p roduct needs to be mental attitudeed to appeal to the target customer. For example, Ashkol would struggle to develop a luxury print image if they set price at a low, penetration level. Product The physical product needs to be appropriate for the private household market.Office furniture may have a very diametrical style to household furniture, so a different approach may need to be taken to the design of the product in order to make it appealing for the domestic buyer. A customer will only buy one of Salims products if they get a expose deal from buy it than from buying any of the alternatives. This highlights that the nature of the products in the new range will need to meet the demands of the new target market. Areas to consider here are design (size, shape) and features. For example, it may need to be smaller and made of better quality material.The space available in domestic accommodation is promising to be quite restricted, so some standard items may not sell well simply because they are too large. Multi-purpose items, much(prenominal) as desks that incorporate filing drawers and PC monitor stands may be required. military post Place deals with how the product is distributed, and how it reaches its customers. Establishing a suitable distribution system is going to be one of Salims largest tasks. His products are bulky and will therefore have to be transported by ship from India to Europe, probably in load containers, which will impose a minimum economic scale of shipment.Distribution Channels Serious consideration will have to be given to how customers will be able to status, order and receive delivery of the products. Furniture showrooms are necessarily large areas and need to be in areas where customers will be attracted. Even if exchange is by direct mail or over the Internet, there will be probably have to be a warehouse to receive bulk shipments from India, break them down and dispatch individual orders. each this has major cost implicat ions perhaps offsetting the cost savings from cheaper labour.These considerations alone may push Salim towards a co-operative jeopardize with a European agent who knows the market and is prepared to take on the selling and distribution task. forwarding involves arousing attention, generating interest, inspiring desire and initiating action. Marketing communication involved in this could be advertising, public relations, direct selling or sales promotion. A furniture showroom would be part of this but a wider approach will be needed. The target market is people working from home and the promotional methods used should be appropriate to this market.Types of promotion * Direct promotion via mailing lists may be appropriate, although because Salim has no experience in this market, he would probably have to buy the list which may make this an expensive option. * There are numerous home style magazines in which adverts can be placed. * The Internet is a vital part of the life of people working from home and its authorization for promotion should be fully utilized, perhaps by setting up a dedicated website. Organising and designing the marketing communication effort will about certainly require input from someone familiar with the European market.Price is the final element of the marketing mix and is an important signal to customers about the product. It is important that the price should be competitive so Salim should investigate the prices beingness charged by competitors who have similar product ranges. Price should also indicate the quality of the product so Salim will need to decide if he wants to produce a deluxe range or a more basic model. Discounts and payment terms need to be considered as a potential way of attracting customers especially in the initial start up phase of the new product line. burst (b)Because of limited resources, competition and large markets, organisations are not usually able to sell with equal capability and success to every mar ket portion. It is necessary to select target markets. A target market is a particularly attractive segment that will be served with a distinct marketing mix. While Salims products may have some application for commercial users, he intends to sell then to customers, who will view them as shopping goods. These goods have a higher unit value than convenience goods and are bought less(prenominal) frequently, usually after some thought and consideration have been expended.Salim should try to specify the segment of the customer market into which he wishes to sell his products with some care, since this will influence important decisions about all the elements of the marketing mix, including such things as product design, marketing communications, price and distribution methods. Kotler identified six steps pure tone 1- Identify segmentation variables and segment the market Step 2- Develop segment profiles Steps 1 and 2 are in segmentation Step 3- Evaluate that attractiveness of each seg ment Step 4- drive the target segment(s)Steps 3 and 4 are in targeting Step 5- Identify positioning concepts for each target segment Step 6 Select develop and communicate the elect concept Steps 5 and 6 are in positioning Segmentation variables fall into a small number of categories. geographic segmentation is very simple, but can usefully be combined with socio-demographic segmentation. Psychographic segmentation is not ground on objective data so much as how people see themselves and their subjective feelings and attitudes towards a particular product or service, or towards life in general.The behavioural approach segments buyers into groups based on their attitudes to and use of the product, and the benefits they expect to receive. Both of these methods are most useful for convenience goods and are not, therefore likely to be very useful to Salim. Probably, the best segmentation approach for Salim is socio-demographic segmentation, which is based on social, economic and demogr aphic variables such as education, income, occupation, family size and social class.Much work has already been done on this approach, in the ACORN system, for example, and Salim would be able to buy in the basic information he needs. Segment Validity A market segment will only be valid if it is worth designing and developing a ludicrous marketing mix for that specific segment. Salim will have to be sure of several things about his chosen target market Is it large enough to be profitable? Does this segment respond differently in the marketing mix than another segment? Can he reach the potential customers? Can the segment be reached profitably?Is the segment stable enough to justify resources being spent on it? allow it enable him to build on the companys strengths? Internal Analysis It is important to assess company strengths when evaluating attractiveness and targeting a market. This can help determine the appropriate strategy because once the attractiveness of each identified seg ment has been assessed it can be considered along with relative strengths to determine the potential advantages the organization would have. In this way, preferred segments can be targeted. Product PositioningIt is unlikely that Salim will be able to identify a market segment where there is no direct competitor, so it will be necessary to position the product line in such a way as to create of some form of product differentiation. The aim is to make the customer perceive the product as different from its competitors. An aid to this is to try to identify gaps in the market by considering the mix of the product attributes such as price, applications, users, occasions for use and specific aspects of quality may be drawn to refine knowledge of product position.

Friday, May 17, 2019

International Trade Theory Essay

7 theories of inter areaal handicraft1. Mer keistertilism2. Absolute Advantage3. comparative degree Advantage4. Heckscher-Ohlin Theory5. Product Life-Cycle Theory6. sweet Trade Theory7. The Theory of National Competitive Advantage1. Mercantilism-emerged in England in the mid-16th century. The main tenet of mercantilism was that it was in a surface beas best interests more than it imported. Consistent with this belief, the mercantilist philosophy advocated government intervention to achieve a surplus in the balance of trade. To achieve this, imports were limited by tariffs and quotas, while exports were subsidized. The flaw with mercantilism was that it viewed trade as a zero-sum adventure.Zero-sum Game- is one in which a take on by one country results in a loss by another. 2. Absolute Advantage-In his 1776 catchment basin book The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith attacked the mercantilist assumption that trade is a zero-sum game. He argued that countries differ in their abili ty to produce goods efficiently. According to Smith, countries should specialize in the production of goods for which they feature an absolute advantage and and then trade these for goods produced by other countries.He added that a country should never produce goods at national that it can buy at a demoralize represent from other countries. Smith demonstrates that, by specializing in the production of goods in which each has an absolute advantage, both countries benefit by engaging in trade.3. Comparative Advantage-In his 1817 book Principles of Political Economy, David Ricardo of Comparative Advantage Theory said that it makes sense for a country to specialize in the production of those goods that it produces most efficiently and to buy the goods that it produces less efficiently from other countries, flat if this means buying goods from other countries that it could produce more efficiently itself.The basic message of this theory is that potency world production is greater with unrestricted free trade than it is with restricted trade. It suggests that consumers in all nations can consume more if there are no restrictions on the trade and that trade is a positive-sum game in which all countries that participate realize economic gains.Three of the assumptions in the comparative advantage archetype 1. Resources move freely from the production of one good to another within a country. 2. There are constant returns to scale.3. Trade does not change a countrys stock of resources or the strength with which those resources are utilized. The Samuelson Critique- looks at what happens when a rich country -the United States- enters into a free trade concordance with a poor country -China- that rapidly improves its productivity after the introduction of a free trade regime.4. Heckscher- Ohlin Theory-Swedish economists Eli Heckscher (1919) and Bertil Ohlin (1933) put forward a different explanation of comparative advantage. They argued that comparative advantage arises from the differences in national factor endowments. Factor endowments meant the extent to which a country is endowed with such resources as land, labor, and capital. Nations have varying factor endowments, and these explain differences in factor costs specifically, the more abundant a factor, the lower its cost.This theory predicts that countries will export those goods that make intensive use of factors that are locally abundant, while trade goods that make intensive use of factors that are locally scarce.This also argues that free is beneficial. But unlike Ricardos theory, this theory argues that the pattern ofinternational trade is determined by differences in factor endowments, rather than differences in productivity. The Leontief Paradox- a famous ascertain published in 1953 by Nobel Prize winner Wassily Leontief. The result of the study was at variance with the predictions of the Heckscher- Ohlin Theory.5. The Product Life-Cycle Theory-this was originally proposed by Raymond Vernon in the mid-1960s. This theory tells us that where a new product was introduced is important. This theory suggests that early in their life cycle, most new products are produced in and exported from the country in which they were developed. As a new product becomes widely accepted internationally, production starts in other countries. As a result, the theory suggests, the product whitethorn ultimately be exported back to the country of its original innovation.6. New Trade Theory-this was developed by economist Paul Krugman in mid-eighties who pointed out that the ability of firms to attain economies of scale might have important implications for international trade. Economies of scale are unit cost reductions associated with a large scale of takings. They are a major source cost reductions in many industries. Two important points of the New Trade Theory First, through its impact on economies of scale, trade can increase the variety of goods available to consumers an d decrease the average costs of those goods. Second, in those industries when the output required to attain economies of scale represents a significant proportion of total world demand, the global grocery may only be able to support a small number of enterprises. Another motion of the New Trade Theory is that the pattern of trade we observe in the world economy may be the result of economies of scale and first mover advantages.The theory suggests that a country may eclipse in the export of a good simply because it was lucky enough to have one or more firms among the first to produce that good. 7. The Theory of National Competitive Advantage gatekeepers adamant -this was developed by Michael Porter in 1990. For him, the essential task was toexplain why a nation achieves international success in a particular industry. Four attributes that constitute the Porters adamant Factor Endowments- a nations position in factors of production such as experient labor or the infrastructure necessary to compete in a given industry. Demand Conditions- the record of home demand for the industrys product or service. Relating and supporting industries-the presence or absence seizure of supplier industries and related industries that are internationally competitive. Firm strategy, structure, and rivalry- the conditions governing how companies are created, organized, and managed and the nature of domestic rivalry.Porter argues that firms are more likely to succeed in industries where the baseball diamond is most favorable. He also argues that the diamond is a mutually reinforcing system. The effect of one attribute is contingent on the state of others.IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGERSThe theories discussed have at least three main implications for international businesses Location Implications First-mover Implications Policy Implications