Wednesday, November 27, 2019
The Role Ofreligion And Morality In Cat's Cradle As an author, Kurt Vonnegut has received just about every kind of praise an author can receive: his works held the same sway over American philosophy as did those of Jack Kerouac or J.R.R. Tolkein; his writing has received acclaim from academics and the masses alike; and three of his books have been made into feature films. Society has permanently and noticeably been altered by his writing. Through accessible language and easily-understood themes, Vonnegut has created works subtle, engrossing, and familiar. His main method for doing this is by exploiting a theme with which everyone is familiar and about which everyone has his own opinion: religion. Not many people are more qualified to explore this theme than Vonnegut. He was born in 1922 on Armistice Day (November 11), a holiday celebrating peace, in Indianapolis. His family was moderately wealthy until the onset of the Great Depression, when they lost everything. In 1944, Vonnegut's mother committed suicide by overdosing on sleeping pills. Soon afterwards, he joined the army and fought in the Second World War. Vonnegut was captured as a POW and kept prisoner in Dresden. Soon after his capture, Dresden, an entirely civilian town, was bombed heavily. Vonnegut survived the bombing, came home, and became a writer. His first book, Player Piano, received very little notice at the time it was written, 1952. When he published Sirens of Titan in 1959, it also was largely ignored. In 1969, Vonnegut published Slaughterhouse Five, which was an immediate commercial and academic success. Slaughterhouse Five's success brought attention to his other works, and though Vonnegut was not as popu lar after the ?60's, he continued to publish successful books (http://www.duke.edu/~crh4/vonnegut/). Vonnegut's works have been classified as ?science fiction?, but that hardly does them justice. His works are significantly influenced by that genre, but contain strikingly relevant commentaries about contemporary American society which set him apart from other science-fiction writers. His use of science fiction draws a humorous contrast between the all-important significance of the nature of the universe and of reality, and the insignificance of human life and society. All of his works emphasize the enormous forces acting on his characters, not the least of which is fate. As his writing progressed and matured, this stylistic nuance became more and more evident. In his book Slaughterhouse Five, Vonnegut describes his own style by means of Tralfamadorians, an alien race for whom time is nonexistent, and whose literature reflects this: Each clump of symbols is a brief, urgent message describing a situation, a scene. We Tralfamadorians read them all at once, not one after the oth- er. There isn't any particular relationship between all the messages ex- cept that the author has chosen them carefully, so that, when seen all at once, they produce an image of life that is beautiful and surprising and deep. There is no beginning, no middle, no end, no suspense, no moral, no causes, no effects. What we love in our books are the depths of many marvelous moments seen all at one time (88). Indeed, Vonnegut has dismissed temporal continuity in his writing, and has thus eliminated suspense. Characters are often aware of their own inevitable destiny, as in The Sirens of Titan, and are helpless to stop it from coming to pass. Vonnegut makes it clear that modern society is much like this - people can see where they're headed, but are too powerless or apathetic to prevent it. In his book Cat's Cradle, Vonnegut mocks people's mindless, apathetic acceptance of their fates by portraying a situation in which unimaginably powerful forces toss around people desperate to escape them. He presents ?civilization's attempt to commit suicide (Hocus Pocus, 72)?, the atomic bomb dropped at Hiroshima, and ends the book with all of the water on earth freezing as the result of a substance called ?ice-nine?, and thus civilization successfully committing suicide. Ironically, the man who created the atomic bomb also created ice-nine, a man not diabolically evil, but merely absent-minded. In this, Vonnegut portrays not only the amazing influence the forces of the universe have on us, but also the influence a select few of us have on the forces of the universe. In Cat's Cradle, Vonnegut describes an amazingly
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Engineering Ethics essay Engineering Ethics essay Engineering Ethics essayIn this case it would be better to discuss the problem with the design engineer to see what he suggests (option 3). The design engineer of the company is responsible for any technical services that are necessary to complete the project. I believe that the design engineer will be able to find the new component of the machines to meet the required deadline. In case he fails to solve this problem, it would be ethically to ask Parker to extend its deadline. Ethical decision making in engineering practice is crucial to satisfy the needs of clients. The pressure of deadlines should not affect the quality of work.Question 2Tim is aware of his responsibility to solve the issue and find the right solution, but he needs experience. It would be better for Tim to call Arnold because this person is competent in quality control issues. He can help Tim to find the most suitable solution in order to provide the product that meets minimal safety and durability standards. Tim should not resolve the problem by himself because Arnold Peterson, the Vice President of Product Engineering, can help him to keep up the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Anyway, Tim should not disregard ArnoldÃ¢â¬â¢s advice because he holds a higher position and he is more competent in quality control issues than Tim. Besides, Tim has the potential to become competent in these issues in the future.Question 3 (Version 1) In the first scenario, Tim should be ready to find the proper solution to the existing problem by himself. He should use the old components in place of the new ones in order to meet the deadlines. In the second scenario, Tim should do the same. He can use the old components in place of the new ones. He will be able to keep this information in secret because the customers should not know about this problem. In the second scenario, Tim should break up and regrind the remaining supply of the old component. He will be able to meet the deadlines.Tim should say that he had to approve substituting the old component in place of the new one because he did not want to inform his customers of the existing problems. He should add that he wanted to keep the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Actually, Tim is responsible for quality control. He knows that using the old component does not affect the functioning of the product. Besides, Tim should explain Arnold that it would be unlikely that the clients would ever detect the substitution. Tim should use his professional skills to give a clear and concise explanation because of engineering ethics that lies in the basis of engineering profession. TimÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are regulated by Ã¢â¬Å"ethical standards, embodied in the code of ethicsÃ¢â¬ (Catalano 1).Tim should be prepared to give a clear and concise explanation of the process of replacement. The major goal of Tim is to prove the fact that substituting the old component in place of the new component does not affect the functioning of the product because of si milar characteristics of the components. Tim should be ready to demonstrate the functioning of the product based on the knowledge and experience he has got in the process of work. Anyway, Tim should be confident in his actions. To avoid conflicts, Tim should offer compensation if Parker continues complaining. Tim should promise to replace these components.If Tim substitutes the old component for the new one, and neither Parker nor anyone else outside of Ruskin ever finds out, this fact means all parties are satisfied and Tim acted appropriately. There are several factors that explain his appropriateness. First, he managed to meet deadlines. Second, he did not tell his clients about any problems. Third, he managed to keep the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. In general, Tim demonstrated his professionalism in terms of engineering ethics. He determined his personal approach to solving engineering ethics problems. He was focused on the principles of Ã¢â¬Å"duty ethicsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"virtue ethicsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"rights ethicsÃ¢â¬ , which help to respond to various situations. Engineering Ethics essay Engineering Ethics essay Engineering Ethics essayIt is possible to analyze Marvins response from the utilitarian perspective. Utilitarian ethics relies on the evaluation of positive and negative consequences for all stakeholders (Frederick, 2008). Immediate stakeholders in this case are Marvin Johnson, Edgar Owens and plant employees. Other stakeholders are people in the area and tourists. Ignoring the problem would lead to positive consequences for Edgar Owens and plant employees since the plant will not lose money and will be able to remain competitive. However, there will be minor negative consequences for the tourists and for the people living in the area due to the excess pollution. In the short-term perspective, however, the positive consequences from ignoring the increased level of pollution would overweigh potential negative consequences.At the same time, in the long-term perspective ignoring the problem would be unethical from the perspective of utilitarianism. Indeed, any external check of pollutio n would indicate that the plant exceeded legal limitations. The plant would have to pay expensive fines and remodel its equipment. Furthermore, the cumulative effect of the pollution on people is not known, and there is a high risk of adverse health consequences for the tourists and for the people living in the area. The harm done to the fish might destroy the ecosystem and lead to larger environmental issues. Therefore, considering the long-term consequences, Marvin should refuse to ignore the problem and report the real data.The stakeholders related to the considered case are: Marvin and Edgar, other employees of Wolfog, senior management of Wolfog, the plants shareholders or investors, local government, people living in the area and tourists. According to Kantian theory, it is important to treat all these people as ends in themselves and respect their interests (Crane Matten, 2010). Therefore, from the perspective of Kantian theory it is inadmissible to ignore the problem and to adjust the data.Deboras work responsibilities include checking the compliance of industry reports and anti-pollution requirements. From the position of virtue theory, it is possible to state that she ensures that every company would maintain the balance and demonstrate the virtue of temperance (Guha, 2008). In other words, Debora ensures that companies do not use the environment over the limits provided to them. From Deboras point of view, the plant managers idea to view the excess pollution as a mere technicality is unethical; moreover, such occasions should be prohibited and fined to eliminate further occurrences of such behavior.The position of parents of local children swimming in the lake can be viewed from the point of view of Kantian theory. It is unfair to expose the lives of children to risk in order to save some money for the plant. In this case, plant manager was willing to treat people as means and not ends in themselves. Such approach is deemed as unethical in Kantian ethics (Boylan, 2013).Ethical analysis of the situation can also be performed using the Categorical Imperative. If a decision or choice is universalizable, non-controversial in the universal perspective and desirable as a universal rule, then it is ethical (Bredeson, 2011). In the considered case, if there were several plants which exceeded the limit on pollution and adjusted their pollution reports, the emissions will quickly exceed the acceptable level and harm the health of all people. Such tendency might even harm the well-being of the whole mankind. Therefore, the considered decision is not universalizable and is not desirable as a universal rule. Hence, the idea to adjust the results of the report is unethical and should be rejected.The analysis of the situation at Wolfog was performed from several perspectives: utilitarian (in section 1), deontological (section 2, 4 and 5) and virtue theory perspective (section 3). Each of these ethical theories applied to the situation shows that the idea suggested by the plant manager is unethical and potentially harmful, so Marvin should refuse to adjust the results of the report.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Tourism city brand of integrated marketing communications - Dissertation Example Brunel University Brunel Business School Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1895 267007 Fax: +44 (0) 1895 269865 Declaration I hereby undertake the completed report on my own and it is my work. I have provided complete acknowledgement to authors of any information that has been previously published and used in this report. It to my best knowledge that the information provided in this report meets all ethical requirements of providing citations throughout the text (Harvard Style). I also understand and accept that my completed report upon submission will become the property of Brunel University which is then allowed to reproduce this report in any for educational and research purposes without seeking consent from me. Student ID: Date: Word Count: Acknowledgements I would like to personally thank my supervisor Dr. XYZ who has been quite supportive despite of his other commitments. Without his guidance it would not have been possible for me to complete this disserta tion in a meaningful manner. This research work has been a one of the best practice in my learning career and has surely help me develop my education research skills which would help in my career. Moreover, without the support of my parents and teachers, it would not have been possible to conduct this research work. I therefore dedicate the work of mine to my parents, teachers, and friends. Abstract The branding and marketing of cities is an essential factor for the governments for the promotion of their cities, and it helps them to improve the economic position of the government in this era of globalization. Over the last few years the London City had been preparing for the event of Olympics which were held almost 2 months ago and keeping in view the phenomenal event of Olympics, this study can be considered as a useful attempt to investigate how integrated marketing communication tools have been used for marketing of Olympic Games 2012 and branding of London city as a host city wh ich has been known for its rich culture and social heritage and setup. The prime objective of this research work is to focus on the integrated marketing tools that are applied in the branding of the London city. For this study, an online survey was conducted through which 150 respondents residing in either UK or other EU countries took part. The data collected from the primary research was subjected to statistical modelling including regression analysis to draw upon the relationship between effectiveness of integrated marketing communication (IMC) used by different authorised organizations on the perception of tourists or travellers visiting London as to whether they feel that IMC has successfully branded the London as the host city of Olympics 2012. The result of the present study has revealed that IMC activities have successfully branded London as a city and there is a significant impact of IMC on branding of London city. Table of Contents 2 Acknowledgements 3 Abstract 4 Chapter 1 - Introduction 11 Chapter 2: Literature Review 20 Chapter 3: Research Methodology 43 Chapter Ã¢â¬â 04: Findings and Discussion 54 Chapter 5 - Conclusion and Recommendations 71 Appendix I:
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Effect of Bcl-2 on Lung Cancer - Essay Example To be able to obtain an accurate and strongly reliable research finding and study conclusion, the research method should always be aligned with the research hypothesis at all times. Back then, it was hypothesized in the study of Xu et al. (2013) that there can be a strong connection between Bcl-2 with a personÃ¢â¬â¢s susceptibility to lung cancer and its prognosis among the Chinese men. Specifically, the research hypothesis of Xu et al. (2013) is very much in-line with its chosen research method. It means that the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ decision to make use of its research method is good enough to determine whether or not the research hypothesis presented in the said study should be accepted or not. For example, in the process of selecting and genotyping a total of 3 Bcl-2Ã¢â¬â¢s tagSNP (i.e. rs1564483, rs 1801018, and rs 2279115) in 1017 couple of Chinese male with lung cancer using the TaqMan assay, the authors were able to find out that the genotypes of rs1564483GA, AA, as well as GA+AA, were strongly related to the decrease in Chinese menÃ¢â¬â¢s susceptibility to lung cancer whereas the allele of rs1564483A increases Chinese menÃ¢â¬â¢s susceptibility of developing lung cancer particularly those who had family history of cancer and previous smoking habit. In this study, the clinical term Ã¢â¬Å"prognosisÃ¢â¬ is all about being able to foretell the possible long-term effects after a person has been diagnosed with lung cancer. Using the same research method, Xu et al. (2013) found out that research participants with Bcl-2 rs1564483 GA+AA genotypes are the ones who can experience longer survival rate and reduced risks of untimely deaths as compared to those Chinese men with rs1564483GG genotype. The primary exposure of interest in this study was genetic factors, in particular, the polymorphism of the Bcl-2 gene in the Chinese men. This was measured by genotyping using the TaqMan method that used a sequence detection system (Xu et al, 2013).
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Discussion on Quantitative Reasoning for Business Course Essay Discussion on Quantitative Reasoning for Business Course Self Reflection Paper 10/15/08 Discussion on Quantitative Reasoning for Business Course For many years, the quantitative or mathematical approach to business problem solving was the cornerstone of MBA programs worldwide. The traditional approach has been a rational analysis: information is collected, collated, analyzed and interpreted, alternatives are formulated, and a logical choice is consciously arrived at (Bagchi, 2005). In practice this means: Ã¢â¬Å"the more information, the better; Ã¢â¬Ëcool and calmÃ¢â¬â¢ strategic thinking should not be Ã¢â¬ËdebasedÃ¢â¬â¢ by feelings; efficient thought and behavior must be called upon to subjugate emotionÃ¢â¬ (Sadler-Smith, 2004). The Quantitative Reasoning for Business course would provide me with the prerequisites necessary to master the rational analysis. In recent years, however, the usefulness of the quantitative analysis training for future managers has been put into doubt. The requirement for fast decisions and the limits of human beingsÃ¢â¬â¢ rational information-processing capacities may combine to impose severe demands upon executivesÃ¢â¬â¢ cognitive capabilities to handle masses of information at the necessary speed (Sadler-Smith, 2004). That is when intuition comes into play. Intuition is difficult to describe but easy to recognize. Many of us will be intimately familiar with our own intuitions and will probably be able to identify, and may even envy or admire, those individuals who confidently display a Ã¢â¬Ëgut feelÃ¢â¬â¢ for complex situations and who appear to have an Ã¢â¬ËinstinctÃ¢â¬â¢ for grasping key issues quickly. This quality can be nurtured through life experience. The optimal solution thus, might be a combination of two approaches depending on circumstances. The relationship between intuition and rationality can work in two ways. For example, proceeding from intuition to rational analysis represents a Ã¢â¬ËvalidationÃ¢â¬â¢ sequence in which gut feeling may be checked out by rational analysis by posing questions such as Ã¢â¬ËDo the data support my hunch? Proceeding from rational analysis to intuition represents an Ã¢â¬ËincubationÃ¢â¬â¢ sequence in which intuition provides an expertise-based or feelings-based validation for judgments arrived at through rational analysis (Sadler-Smith, 2004). In summary, quantitative training will probably benefit me by preparing me for the future courses in economics, finance, accounting, operations, and research (Quantitative Reasoning for Business Overview, nd). More importantly though, it will prepare me for the future Ã¢â¬Ëreal worldÃ¢â¬â¢ w ork, even when its direct usefulness is not as extensive as often believed its proponents.
Friday, November 15, 2019
Occupational Health And Safety Management Systems Construction Essay Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) have been defined by Gallagher as Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦a combination of the planning and review, the management organisational arrangements, the consultative arrangements, and the specific program elements that work together in an integrated way to improve health and safety performance A management system is a set of interrelated elements used to establish the policy and objectives, and to reach these objectives, it includes an organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources. The implementation process of a management system adds value to organizational culture since it develops competences related to the planning and execution of activities, prioritizes the capacity of team work and promotes the improved reliability of production systems.According to OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (2007), occupational health and safety are conditions and factors that affect, or could affect, the health and safety of employees or other workers (including temporaries and outsourced workers), visitors or any other person at the workplace. An occupational health and safety management system can be defined as part of the organizations management system used to develop and implement its policy and manage its occupational health and safety risks (OHSAS 18001, 2007). The implementation of occupational health and safety management systems has been the main strategy to combat the serious social and economic problem of work-related accidents and illnesses and it can also be used by companies as a factor to increase competitiveness (TRIVELATO, 2002). When an employee is hired by a company, the perception he has regarding the physical and social environment he finds will influence his daily behavior. That is why aspects such as order, cleanliness and personal hygiene are of utmost importance, as is the organization and utilization of space by means of an appropriate layout (BARBOSA FILHO, 2001). OHSAS 18001 Occupational Health and Safety Management System The British Standard BS 8800 (Guide to Occupational Health and Safety Systems), created in 1996, was the first successful attempt at establishing a standard reference for implementing a health and safety management system. It aims at improving the organizations performance in terms of health and safety, providing guidance with regards to how its management should be integrated with the administration of other aspects of company performance. This standard was broadly disseminated throughout the world and adopted in the most diverse industries. It is comprised of a series of elements (requirements); however, it does not establish performance criteria or even specifications on how to design the system. In 1999, OHSAS 18001 was published by the British Standards Institution (BSI). It was elaborated by a group of international entities (BVQI, DNV, LLOYDS, SGS and others), which used BS 8800 as its basis. It was developed in response to the needs of companies to manage their occupational health and safety obligations more efficiently. In July 2007, OHSAS 18001:1999 was replaced by OHSAS 18001:2007, and some alterations were introduced, thus reflecting the experience of 16,000 certified organizations in more than 80 countries (QSP, 2007). OHSAS 18001 aims at providing organizations with elements of an effective occupational health and safety management system that can be integrated with other management requirements and help them achieve their OHS and economic objectives (OHSAS 18001, 2007). It is applicable to every type and size of organization and can be integrated with other management systems (quality, environment and social responsibility) in order to help them achieve their occupational health and safety objectives. As per Figure 1, OHSAS is based on PDCA methodology (OHSAS 18001, 2007). This OHSAS Standard is based on the methodology known as Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA). PDCA can be briefly described as follows. Plan: establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the organizations OHS policy. Do: implement the processes. Check: monitor and measure processes against OHS policy, objectives, legal and other requirements, and report the results. Act: take actions to continually improve OHS performance Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 provides the mechanism for occupational health and safety management, helps companies in the systematic inspection and measurement of the degree of their suitability, as well as trains employee to understand their role in the health safety system and its improvement. Companies hoping to implement an effective occupational health and safety management system should have a clear understanding of the changes in health and safety laws, as well as potential hazards existing inside the factory. A good understanding could reduce accidents, accident and calamity risks, as well as upgrade the general health and safety risk control efficiency of the company. The study explains the implementation performance and execution procedure of the occupational health safety management system based on actual implementation experience of the occupational health safety management system. Occupational health safety management system establis hment experiences showed that one undergoes eight stages when setting up an OHSAS 18001 compliant health and safety management system execution procedure; namely, preparation, initial review, planning, documentation, implementation operation, checking corrective action, management review, and continuous improvement. 1.0 Preparation Stage Preparatory work and psychological construction are fairly important in the establishment of the occupational health safety management system. Generally, during the initial period of introducing occupational health safety management system into a factory, factory workers already possessed a health and safety precognition, as well as understand that the establishment of the company occupational health safety management system would require their full coordination and support. The primary function of this stage is to foster top executive support and authorization, implementing body organization, and stimulation of personnel recognition. Top executive support and authorization Top executive is the highest authority of the occupational health safety management system, as well as the highest decision making manager of the factory However, prior to setting up system, a factory should obtain the approval and support of its top executive. The occupational health safety management system establishment responsibility and authority should be assigned to the appropriate personnel to integrate internal existing resources and dissolve possible resistance that may surface during the execution process. A specific measure would be to employ a paper or hierarchic order relay method starting from the top factory executive, e.g. chairman, CEO, president, or factory manager, openly making official explanation of the system to the management executives and operators. For instance, holding a Kick-off Meeting or employing other official announcement or publication to notify managers and staff about the establishment of the occupational health safety management system. It is imperative that each individual should understand the companys determination in promoting the occupational health safety management system. Organizing an implementing body Clear-cut scope of individual responsibilities is an imperative essential of a good management system. OHSAS 18001 requires the assignment of corresponding responsibilities to employees, clearing defining their responsibilities, authority, and mutual relationship. The management should provide the resources needed for execution, as well as appoint the suitable management representative. Hence, the organization should have a written document clearly defining the role of each individual in the system to allow each person to understand his/her importance, responsibilities, and authority in the scheme of operations, position in the organization, and the vertical relationship of the management level. The organization might explain to the persons in charge, positions and management level possessing the relevant management responsibilities in the handbook or procedure manual. The regular training and internal communication channels may be used to make each person understand the nature of hi s/her responsibility. As for management responsibilities, aside from total authority delegation, it is also necessary to provide the appropriate resources; e.g. money, manpower, materials, technology, information source. The management representative is the soul of the occupational health safety management system. Pursuant to higher management instructions, he/she is responsible for leading the system to the right path, as well as verifying the right operating responsibilities of the occupational health safety management system and report system execution performance to higher management. Stimulating health and safety recognition of employees Education and training are important tools organizations use to maintain the professional knowledge and skills of employees; especially during the early stage of occupational health safety management system establishment. Education and training are the best means for upgrading personnel skills, stimulating employee understanding of his/her work as well as health and safety effects. A training premise is that the organization should first identify the individuals expose to potential serious health and safety risks to provide a suitable training. Likewise, employees assigned to special jobs should possess adequate educational background, training and experience for the job. Generally, the business sector does not have a clear perception of health and safety, therefore under such deficient information supply, employees could hardly understand their role in the health and safety problems, needless to say take measures to further ensure his/her or another partys safety. The OHSAS 18001 training requirement goes beyond work technology, it also emphasizes recognition upgrade. Factories introducing the occupational health safety management system concept may use education and training as a foundation; when requiring employees to maintain or upgrade their skills, factories should first allow employees to understand correlation between and importance of their work and health safety. Organizations may relay health safety management system requirements to employees through means most suitable to the factory culture. If everyone understands ones role and responsibility in the system, then working under the health and safety effects, one would be able to upgrade ones health and safety performance, as well as gladly coordinate with the health safety management system of the company. 2 Initial review period During the establishment of the occupational health safety management system, initial review of the condition understanding and data compilation work provided the formulation of subsequent or amendment of occupational health safety policies; formulation of objectives and management programs; definition of references for standard procedure documents. Initial review is not part of the OHSAS 18001 certification requirement, however those who have not established their occupational health safety management system in the OHSAS 18002 may use this measure as foundation of subsequent operations. Initial review allowed factories to understand fully the relationship between their internal operations and the safety problems, as well as the safety problems and responsibilities of the factories. The purpose of initial review is to provide a thorough understanding of the health and safety advantages and disadvantages of the organization per se, well as provide a clear-cut direction for the futu re occupational health safety management system. The endeavor is like a medical examination; it is used to understand the health and safety weaknesses and probable improvements inside the factory. The matter of weakness improvement will form the future execution content of future occupational health safety management system execution. Initial review findings are finally compiled into the initial review report by the organization or an appointed person in charge. The report should be able to summarily explain matters under investigation, present a conclusion and suggestions for future to management review and future reference purposes. 3 Framework and planning period Following the completion of initial review and factories development of a general health and safety consensus comes future health and safety policymaking. Framework and planning execution covers the following: defining health and safety policies, setting objectives, organizing health and safety management programs, and formulation of document outline. Defining health and safety policies Health and safety policies manifest the commitment of the top executive, it is also the highest guiding principle of the health safety management system, the force behind the implementation and improvement of the health safety management system, as well as the manifestation of the organizations intentions in terms of health and safety responsibility and performance requirements. Likewise it serves as the standard for future occupational health safety management system establishment and improvement. Prior to the establishment of occupational health safety policies, the top executive should have a full understanding of organizational conditions as well as the hazards and health safety risks resulting from factory operations. The top executive should also have a thorough understanding to determine and manifest adequately intentions and direct future organization direction. Health and safety affairs often existed under a high subjective consciousness; hence the suitability of the he alth and safety policies could determine the success or failure of the occupational health safety management system. During the execution of the continuous improvement process, subjective and objective factors would change with progress; hence for the effective system operation, health and safety policies should be properly adjusted and amended in response to time and space changes. Defining health and safety objectives For effective risk control and reduction, as well as health and safety policy realization purposes, the organization should define health and safety objectives. The health and safety objectives should be able to manifest health and safety policies and be consistent with their objectives. Objectives should be expressed in writing and extend to every relevant management mechanism. Generally, health and safety objectives should be specific and as much as possible be measurable. Regardless which manner objectives are defined, they should focus on the significant hazards as well as health and safety risks of the factory. When formulating the health and safety objectives, in addition to the factory resource, skill and feasibility considerations, it is also imperative to consider the extent of the influence of the health and safety risks. The health and safety policy realization function of the health and safety objectives should also allow the upgrade of the general health and safety perfo rmance, moreover health and safety objectives should be quantifiable as much as possible. Defining the health and safety management program The health and safety management program is defined for the achievement of objectives; hence it should be able to layout the method, time, person(s) in charge, and goals of each department. Primary considerations include: derivation of specific action plans from objectives, clear-cut and flexible responsibility definition of management program executors, timely revisions. Generally, a program is often creates for a single objective and the achievement time of each objective may vary. A factory could consolidate the other programs or plans under implementation for the simultaneous achievement of multiple projected objectives. Since a management program is the bridge between planning and execution, the various execution requirements (e.g. framework and responsibility, operations and document control, communication, inspection, etc.) should be clearly defined to ensure smooth execution. Formulating document outline The primary objective of document outline formulation is to integrate the occupational health safety management system into the existing management system of the company for the realization of occupational health safety management operations. To ensure the proper execution of occupational health safety management system policies, objectives and management programs, integration with the existing system is imperative. Moreover, for the purpose of reducing excessive overlapping management documents, one should prepare the document outline beforehand. The more popular method is to prepare a checklist of existing management documents, may them be ISO 9000, ISO 14001, or other management system documents; then a comparative study with health and safety policies, objectives, and management programs should be conducted. Documents for addition or amendment should be identified then submitted to the departments concerned for preparatory work. The existing document management system of the c ompany may be used as the opener for the internal management system integration to facilitate quality, environment, occupational health safety management system integration. The endeavor would not only boost system operation efficiency, but also reduce the resistance due to the implementation of a new system. 4 Documentation stage What the OHSAS 18001 requires is a complete system managing health and safety affairs, not a bunch of scattered management techniques. Hence, every management method and document regulation of the system should be systematically and documentarily expressed for the creation of a future management system that is written into uniformity. Therefore, document amendment, utilization, maintenance, preservation, and control should be regulated through written rules for utilization and management convenience. Documents should be properly updated, valid, clearly identified, and easily traced for the effective management execution. Every document should be able to reflect work conditions, and duly evaluated by the approving authority. Document compilation, preservation, revision, and retraction should be suit time and place. Generally, one should still refer to the ISO 14001 document control and best options available during the implementation of OHSAS 18001; since the two came from the same or igin and are highly compatible. OHSAS 18001 does not have many documentation procedures; but whatever circumstances are, aside from the procedure, the factory should define the criteria for support based on its requirements. Let us take hazard detection for instance some companies would separately define procedures for the acquisition of relevant documents or methods that would ameliorate management information. In the case of objective definition, the provisions only required organizations to establish documentation objectives, but some companies separately formulated procedures for objective definition, or use a complete procedure to define the steps and precautions necessary for the planning portion. 5 Implementation and operation stage It does not matter what planning objectives were, how perfect planning was, or if planning was effective, what matters is the implementation execution. If policies, objectives, and programs are but matters of propaganda or are regarded as slogans, then their effects could not be optimized and the final planning objectives could never be achieved. In terms of the first health and safety management system established, since initial review was not included in the regular scope of execution of the system, one need not use a specific operating procedure to implement it. Once the health and safety policies have been set, proper utilization of initial review experience could simultaneously establish the document and execution plan procedures. Having completed planning operations, it is imperative to execute plan according to the management program. The relevant procedures, provisions, and operating standards should be established before program execution to avoid implementation difficulties . The more special requirements in the execution of the occupational health safety management system are communication and consultation. Since health and safety affairs are often interlinked and closely related to other parties, it is not just a matter of doing the job well, but one should also exchange opinions with the related groups or individuals whenever necessary. When dealing with internal operations, it is imperative to have two-way communication and consultation channels; when dealing with external matters, a good management is not dependent on ones singular determination. It should be recognized by the external community; moreover, while handling health and safety affairs, the organization should acquire the consensus of interested parties to reduce conflicts and doubts. The organization should be willing to coordinate related safety regulations and control. 6 Checking and corrective action stage It is imperative to continually check system execution trend to keep the health safety management system operating properly; the examination and corrective measures serve this function. The OHSAS 18001 requires system to have at least inspection and measurement procedure, corrective and preventive measures for inconsistent conditions, recording, health and safety management system audit. These features are correlated and could keep system operation within the prescribed parameters of the law and standards.Ã £Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å¡ Inspection and measurement should be realized in daily operations and conducted in line with record management procedures. Records allow the tracing of execution results, so at the event of inconsistent conditions (including false alarm incidents), the authorized personnel should investigate matters as per prescribed procedure to reduce health and safety risks and prevent the recurrence of the same problem. In terms of health safety management system audit, the organization should institute procedure and program control to ensure that system would not deviate from the plan and be efficiently maintained and executed. The audit also provides the management a basis for evaluation. The progress of a health safety management system is due to continuous follow-up and improvement. Techniques employed are health safety management system audit and top executive management review. The purpose of health safety management system audit is to make sure the organization accomplished the job. It is regular conducted by the internal auditor of the factory, who examines whether operations meet the prescribed procedure and standards; whether departments complied with health and safety policies and objectives. The management review aims to ensure that job is done properly and done by the authorized top executive. The audit reports, past records, and inspection results determine whether the next stage of the entire organization and management system will be in the right direction. 7 Management review The completion of the management review marks the end of a PDCA cycle; it means one could prepare official verification. Prior to the official evaluation of the verification personnel, the factory should verify the completion of the following important matters: at least one PDCA management cycle was completed; the appropriate records were retained; all required documents were executed; version has been updated; execution operation records were written and approved as regulated; related supporting documents are attached; related parties have a full understanding of the health safety policies, health safety risks, and objective execution conditions; subcontractors and vendors were included in the health safety management system management; health safety management system audit has been improved (including internal audit or external evaluation); resolution of the deficiencies found during the previous audit, conclusion of management review, or other matters under related procedure e xecution. 8 Continuous improvement stage Introducing a new management system would give rise to problems during implementation. As long as problems are not serious enough to cause system breakdown or failure, improvements could be instituted. Continuous improvement of the system could be effected through management system audit and management review; as such is a basic requirement of OHSAS 18001. Prior knowledge of factors that may lead to possible problems could save manpower and material costs, as well as post-mortem efforts. The factory should maintain such a healthy state of mind when executing the OHSAS 18001, instead of going on a blind pursuit of a piece of certificate, this way, the factory not only alleviates personnel injury and environmental damages, reduce risk, reduce cost, improve factory image, upgrade factory performance through the health safety management system. In the continuous improvement process, the two major mechanisms fostering continuous improvement are health safety management system audit and management review. A planned and full-scale health safety management system audit could locate the common factors and special factors causing the health and safety performance problems resulting from system deficiency. The top executive determines the right direction for the systematic consideration of health and safety problem solutions, as well as the continuous execution of the PDCA logic continuous improvement mechanisms.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Knock , Knock. Who's There? It's the PapparzziÃ¢â¬ In 1960 Federico Fellini directed a film intitled Ã¢â¬Å"La Dole VltaÃ¢â¬ . In the film actor Walter Santesso plays a news photographer named Ã¢â¬ËPaparazzo'. Little did any of them know the term Ã¢â¬Ëpaparazzo' would be a staple in households and news lines everywhere. In today's times the paparazzi are considered to be rutheless photographers who will do anything to get a snapshot of a celebrity or athelete. Whether it be them leaving practice or a movie set, going out to clubs at night, grocery shopping, or even walking their kids to school.Some say paparazzi are down right (excuse my french) assholes. Standing in line at the supermarket or walking down the streets in some cities, we see magazines or tabloids that have celebrites faces plastered on them in sometimes disapproving situations. We never wonder how the pictures got taken or what lengths it took to get such an amazing or sometimes horrid shot. In June of 2005, then 18 year old Lindsay Lohan's car was hit by photographer Galo Cesar Ramirez who was trying to follow her. In an interview she said Ã¢â¬Å"A line needs to be drawn in terms of getting violent. Ã¢â¬ She then Joined other celebs includingCameron Diaz and Justin Timberlake in trying to prevent the Ã¢â¬Å"papÃ¢â¬ from invading their personal space. In several instances the paparazzi claim the First Amendment, which prohibits the making of any law abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press, or interfering with the right to peaceably assemble. It is very hard for a celebrity to not seem like a hyprocrite when asking for the paparazzi to leave them alone. When leaving your Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ life behind to partake in the lavish yet dangerous life of being famous, there are some things that comes with the erritory.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
GROWTH OF INSURANCE INDUSTRY Ã¢â¬â POST LIBERALIZATION INTRODUCTION : The journey of insurance liberalization process in India is now several years old. The first major milestone in this journey has been the passing of Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999. This along with amendments to the Insurance Act 1983, LIC and GIC Acts paves the way for the entry of private players and possibly the privatization of the hitherto public monopolies LIC and GIC. Opening up of insurance to private sector including foreign participation has resulted into various opportunities and challenges. CONCEPT OF INSURANCE : In our daily life, whenever there is uncertainly there is an involvement of risk. The instinct of security against such risk is one of the basic motivating forces for determining human attitudes. As a sequel to this quest for security, the concept of insurance must have been born. The urge to provide insurance or protection against the loss of life and property must have promoted people to make some sort of sacrifice willingly in order to achieve security through collective co-operation. In this sense, the story of insurance is probably as old as the story of mankind. LIFE INSURANCE : n particular provides protection to household against the risk of premature death of its income earning member. Life insurance in modern times also provides protection against other life related risks such as that of longevity (i. e. risk of outliving of source of income) and risk of disabled and sickness (health insurance). The products provide for longevity are pensions and annu ities (insurance against old age). Non-life insurance provides protection against accidents, property damage, theft and other liabilities. Non-life insurance contracts are typically shorter in duration as compared to life insurance contracts. The bundling together of risk coverage and saving is peculiar of life insurance. Life insurance provides both protection and investment. Insurance is a boon to business concerns. Insurance provides short range and long range relief. The short-term relief is aimed at protecting the insured from loss of property and life by distributing the loss amongst large number of persons through the medium of professional risk bearers such as insurers. It enables a businessman to face an unforeseen loss and, therefore, he need not worry about the possible loss. The long-range object being the economic and industrial growth of the country by making an investment of huge funds available with insurers in the organized industry and commerce. GENERAL INSURANCE : Prior to nationalizations of General insurance industry in 1973 the GIC Act was passed in the Parliament in 1971, but it came into effect in 1973. There was 107 General insurance companies including branches of foreign companies operating in the country upon nationalization, these companies were amalgamated and grouped into the following four subsidiaries of GIC such as National Insurance Co. Ltd. , Calcutta; The New India Assurance Co. Ltd. , Mumbai; The Oriental Insurance Co. Ltd. , New Delhi and United India Insurance Co. Ltd. , Chennai and Now delinked. General insurance business in India is broadly divided into fire, marine and miscellaneous GIC apart from directly handling Aviation and Reinsurance business administers the Comprehensive Crop Insurance Scheme, Personal Accident Insurance, Social Security Scheme etc. The GIC and its subsidiaries in keeping with the objective of nationalization to spread the message of insurance far and wide and to provide insurance protection to weaker section of the society are making efforts to design new covers and also to popularize other non-traditional business. LIBERALIZATION OF INSURANCE : The comprehensive regulation of insurance business in India was brought into effect with the enactment of the Insurance Act, 1983. It tried to create a strong and powerful supervision and regulatory authority in the Controller of Insurance with powers to direct, advise, investigate, register and liquidate insurance companies etc. However, consequent upon the nationalization of insurance business, most of the regulatory functions were taken away from the Controller of Insurance and vested in the insurers themselves. The Government of India in 1993 had set up a high powered committee by R. N. Malhotra, former Governor, Reserve Bank of India, to examine the structure of the insurance industry and recommend changes to ake it more efficient and competitive keeping in view the structural changes in other parts of the financial system on the country. Malhotra Committee's Recommendations The committee submitted its report in January 1994 recommending that private insurers be allowed to co-exist along with government companies like LIC and GIC companies. This recommendation had been prompted by several factors such as ne ed for greater deeper insurance coverage in the economy, and a much a greater scale of mobilization of funds from the economy, and a much a greater scale of mobilization of funds from the economy for infrastructural development. Liberalization of the insurance sector is at least partly driven by fiscal necessity of tapping the big reserve of savings in the economy. Committee's recommendations were as follows: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Raising the capital base of LIC and GIC up to Rs. 200 crores, half retained by the government and rest sold to the public at large with suitable reservations for its employees. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Private sector is granted to enter insurance industry with a minimum paid up capital of Rs. 100 crores. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Foreign insurance be allowed to enter by floating an Indian company preferably a joint venture with Indian partners. Steps are initiated to set up a strong and effective insurance regulatory in the form of a statutory autonomous board on the lines of SEBI. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Limited number of private companies to be allowed in the sector. But no firm is allowed in the sector. But no firm is allowed to operate in both lines of insurance (life or non-life). Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tariff Advisory Committee (TAC) is delinked form GIC to function as a separate statuary body under necessary supervision by the insurance regulatory authority. Ã¢â¬ ¢All insurance companies be treated on equal footing and governed by the provisions of insurance Act. No special dispensation is given to government companies. Ã¢â¬ ¢Setting up of a strong and effective regulatory body with independent source for financing before allowing private companies into sector. COMPETITION TO GOVERNMENT SECTOR: Government companies have now to face competition to private sector insurance companies not only in issuing various range of insurance products but also in various aspects in terms of customer service, channels of distribution, effective techniques of selling the products etc. privatization of the insurance sector has opened the doors to innovations in the way business can be transacted. New age insurance companies are embarking on new concepts and more cost effective way of transacting business. The idea is clear to cater to the maximum business at the lest cost. And slowly with time, the age-old norm prevalent with government companies to expand by setting up branches seems getting lost. Among the techniques that seem to catching up fast as an alternative to cater to the rural and social sector insurance is hub and spoke arrangement. These along with the participants of NGOs and Self Help Group (SHGs) have done with most of the selling of the rural and social sector policies. The main challenges is from the commercial banks that have vast network of branches. In this regard, it is important to mention here that LIC has entered into an arrangement with Mangalore based Corporations Bank to leverage their infrastructure for mutual benefit with the insurance monolith acquiring a strategic stake 27 per cent, Corporation Bank has decided to abandon its plans of promoting a life insurance company. The bank will act as a corporate agent for LIC in future and receive commission on policies sold through its branches. LIC with its branch network of close to 2100 offices will allow Corporation Bank to set up extension centers. ATMs or branches with in its premises. Corporation Bank would in turn implement an effective Cash Flow Management System for LIC. IRDA Act, 1999 Preamble of IRDA Act 1999 reads Ã¢â¬ËAn Act to provide for the establishment of an authority to protect the interests of holders of insurance policies, to regulate, to promote and ensure orderly growth of the insurance industry and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Section 14 of IRDA Act, lays the duties, powers and functions of the authority. The powers and functions of the authority. The powers and functions of the Authority shall include the following. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Issue to the applicant a certificate of registration, to renew, modify withdraw, suspend or cancel such registration. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To protect the interest of policy holders in all matters concerning nomination of policy, surrender value f policy, insurable interest, settlement of insurance claims, other terms and conditions of contract of insurance. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Specifying requisite qualification and practical training for insurance intermediates and agents. Specifying code of conduct for surveyors and loss assessors. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Promoting efficiency in the conduct of insurance business Ã¢â¬ ¢ Promoting and regulating professional regulators connected with the insurance and reinsurance business. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Specifying the form and manner in which books of accounts will be maintained and statement of accounts rendered by insurers and insurance intermediaries. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Adjudication o f disputes between insurers and intermediates. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Specifying the percentage of life insurance and general and general business to be undertaken by the insurers in rural or social sectors etc. Section 25 provides that Insurance Advisory Committee will be constituted and shall consist of not more than 25 members. Section 26 provides that Authority may in consultation with Insurance Advisory Committee make regulations consists with this Act and the rules made there under to carry the purpose of this Act. Section 29 seeks amendment in certain provisions of Insurance Act, 1938 in the manner as set out in First Schedule. The amendments to the Insurance Act are consequential in order to empower IRDA to effectively regulate, promote, and ensure orderly growth of the Insurance industry. Section 30 & 31seek to amend LIC Act 1956 and GIC Act 1972. IMPACT OF LIBERALIZATION While nationalized insurance companies have done a commendable job in extending volume of the business opening up of insurance sector to private players was a necessity in the context of liberalization of financial sector. If traditional infrastructural and semipublic goods industries such as banking, airlines, telecom, power etc. have significant private sector presence, continuing state monopoly in provision of insurance was indefensible and therefore, the privatization of insurance has been done as discussed earlier. Its impact has to be seen in the form of creating various opportunities and challenges. Opportunities 1. Privatization if Insurance was eliminated the monopolistic business of Life Insurance Corporation of India. It may help to cover the wide range of risk in general insurance and also in life insurance. It helps to introduce new range of products. 2. It would also result in better customer services and help improve the variety and price of insurance products. 3. The entry of new player would speed up the spread of both life and general insurance. It will increase the insurance penetration and measure of density. 4. Entry of private players will ensure the mobilization of funds that can be utilized for the purpose of infrastructure development. 5. Allowing of commercial banks into insurance business will help to mobilization of funds from the rural areas because of the availability of vast branches of the banks. 6. Most important not the least tremendous employment opportunities will be created in the field of insurance which is a burning problem of the presence day today issues. CURRENT SCENARIO : After opening up of insurance in private sector, various leading private companies including joint ventures have entered the fields of insurance both life and non-life business. Tata Ã¢â¬â AIG, Birla Sun life, HDFC standard life Insurance, Reliance General Insurance, Royal Sundaram Alliance Insurance, Bajaj Auto Alliance, IFFCO Tokio General Insurance, INA Vysya Life Insurance, SBI Life Insurance, Dabur CJU Life Insurance and Max New York Life. SBI Life insurance has launched three products Sanjeevan, Sukhjeevan and Young Sanjeevan so far and it has already sold 320 policies under its plan. CONCLUSION : From the above discussion we can conclude that the entry of private players in insurance business is needful and justifiable in order to enhance the efficiency of operations, achieving greater density and insurance coverage in the country and for a greater mobilization of long term savings for long gestation infrastructure prefects. New players should not be treated as rivalries to government companies, but they can supplement in achieving the objective of growth of insurance business in india. THE GROWTH OF INSURANCE INDUSTRY Ã¢â¬â POST LIBERALIZATION Prepared by :ashish
Friday, November 8, 2019
Merchant Of Venice By William Shakespeare Essays - Film, Literature Merchant Of Venice By William Shakespeare In the Dukes opinion (Act iv, Sc.1) Shylock is an inhuman wretch. Do you agree? Do you feel that Shylock receives, justice at the end of the play? The Merchant Of Venice was written by William Shakespeare, between 1596 and 1598. It was first published in 1600. Although this play is described as a romantic comedy, there is an underlying plot of moral dimension in the development of Shylocks character. Shylock is a Jew and at this time Jews were the focus of much racial prejudice and repression. In fact the Jewish community in the middle ages suffered huge prejudice. Jews were associated mainly with money lending, as Christians could not lend money at interest to other Christians. Shakespeares portrayal of Shylock and Tubal is based on common prejudice and ignorance tempered by his own liberal tolerance. This racial prejudice is relevant within the play because is justifies the behaviour of shylock. It is this prejudice that sets the plot and is a major theme within The Merchant Of Venice. Antonio who is supposed to be a hero is portrayed as a self- righteous prig at times. Portia who might be expected to play a timid heiress is in fact shown as a strong-minded woman, and Shylock is represented as a tragic outsider. Shylock is a moneylender. He follows the Jewish religion and has a house in Venice. He lives with his daughter and is a widower. It is not easy to see Shylock as a straightforward villain though, despite the fact that when we first meet him, this is what he appears to be. The Duke calls Shylock an inhuman wretch. The Dukes greeting for Antonio is warm, but he damns Shylock with great forcefulness. What The Duke does here is enforce the audiences views of Shylock. Notwithstanding his jaundiced view of Shylock, the Duke tries to reason with him, and attempts to play upon his feelings of comparison and mercy for a fellow human being. Everybody including Tubal hates Shylock. In Act 3 SC.1, Tubal winds up Shylock about his daughter leaving him for as Christian, and taking the families treasures. Any sympathy that the audience may have for Shylock as a result of his impassioned speech quickly evaporates as they listen to him rail against his daughter. His only concerns are for his Ducats, his jewels and now more ominously, his revenge. Thou stickst a dagger in me. I shall never see my gold again- Fourscore Ducats at a sitting! Fourscore Ducats This tells us that he is extremely greedy and he has more concerns over his wealth than his own daughter. Is this the act of a human being or of an inhuman wretch? We learn that even Jessica despises her own father. Jessica acquaints us with her unhappiness at home because of her father. The fact that Shylock is a lone figure in the play is underlined by the fact that even his own daughter is ashamed of him. Jessica is ashamed because of the way that Shylock acts towards everyone in the play. As I have said, everyone hates Shylock but even his own daughter does! She describes the house they live in as hell. What we must ask is, what does this suggest about Shylock being a father? If he cannot show any emotion as a father, surely he cannot then be human. Shylock is racist. Even in the opening scenes there is evidence for this. For example in Act 1 Sc.3, shylock thinks to himself: I will buy with you, sell with you, talk with you, walk with you, and so following: but I will not eat with you, drink with you, nor pray with you This shows us his true feelings towards the Christians, and hints to us of his bloodthirsty revenge that he longs to take on Antonio. Probably the subtlest view of his racism is when he says: I hat you for you are a Christian. This surely shows us his true racist feelings deep inside of him. He openly admits to the people he talks to that he hates them because of their religion. Shylock is very cruel; his desire for Antonios flesh is almost a lust. He shows no mercy for Antonio, it now
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Hillary Clinton and Universal Health Care Hillary Clinton is perhaps most remembered during her tenure as the first lady of the United States in the mid-1990s for her unsuccessful push for universal health care, a controversial proposal seen at the time as a radical overhaul of the way Americans received coverage that drew strong opposition from both the drug and health insurance industries. The cornerstone of the plan was a mandate on employers to provide health insurance for all of their employees. Later in her political career, Clinton supported a mandate on Americans - not businesses - to purchase health insurance for themselves as part of a broad proposal to rein in costs and boost value and quality in the nations network of private health insurers. Clinton unveiled her newer proposals in her American Health Choices Plan during the race for the 2008 Democratic presidential nomination. Said Clinton in September 2007: My plan covers all Americans and improves health care by lowering costs and improving quality. If youre one of the tens of millions of Americans without coverage or if you dont like the coverage you have, you will have a choice of plans to pick from and youll get tax credits to help pay for it. If you like the plan you have, you can keep it. Its a plan that works for Americas families and Americas businesses, while preserving consumer choices. That same individual mandate became a part of President Barack Obamas health care law. Hillary Clinton and Universal Health Care Hillary Clinton was the first lady to President Bill Clinton in 1993 when he appointed her to chair the Presidents Task Force on National Health Care Reform. The president had warned in his inaugural address that the administration would face staunch opposition from powerful lobbies and special interests who would attempt to derail its efforts to provide coverage for all Americans, and he was right. Congressional Republicans opposed the plan, the public saw it as too complex and bureaucratic, but perhaps the kiss of death was the tremendous amount of criticism it received from health insurance industry, which went too far as to produce a multimillion-dollar television campaign against the proposal. The Clinton health care overhaul billed as the centerpiece of Bill Clintons presidency and a path to ensuring some 37 million Americans who had no coverage, died for lack of support in Congress in what was considered a major defeat for the administration and political setback for Hillary Clinton. Hillary Clinton Revises Health Care Proposals Clinton emerged with a new set of plans to ensure every American during the 2008 race for the Democratic presidential nomination. She said she had learned from her mistakes in 1993 and 1994 when the Clinton administrations proposals were too complicated, and that she had the scars to show for it. Clinton portrayed her new American Health Choices Plan as being one modeled after the health care program through which members of Congress are covered. The new array of choices offered in the menu will provide benefits at least as good as the typical plan offered to members of Congress, which includes mental health parity and usually dental coverage, Clinton said in 2007. Hillary Clintons plan would have required Americans to purchase health insurance and required insurers to cover everyone regardless of whether they had preconditions. It would have provided tax credits to Americans who couldnt afford to purchase health care and paid for them by rolling back the so-called Bush tax cuts on those earning more than $250,000 a year. Clinton said at the time her plan would have resulted in a net tax cut for American taxpayers.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Instructional Presentation - Assignment Example Therefore emphasis should be laid on the need for good presentation and organization of the work. One tool that helps in the organizing a piece of information is known as 'graphic organizer'. This tool contains many different forms and they are an illustrative way of constructing knowledge and organizing information. For the users, they help to convert and condense a lot of disparate data into an organized and easy to understand format. Apart from this, the students can identify, organize and assimilate key concepts and related details with the help of these graphic organizers. They can be used for various purposes for example to breakdown work structure, brainstorm an idea, help make decisions, dividing the work into a sequence etc. (Jeananda, 1996) Graphic organizers are highly effective tools especially for students who want the instructions to be easily comprehended and answered in context. In a conventional teaching technique, a teacher would give an assignment to the students to research on the hypothesis that in the last 10 years the level of obesity in the US has doubled. Furthermore the students will be required to identify the reasons for this increase. Without the use of graphical organizers the students would go online or ask a few people on the topic, write it and most probably retain only a bit of information - thus the purpose of the assignment is lost. Using a graphic organizer such as a KWL chart, this assignment can be made much simpler and more fun for the students at the same time. KWL stands for 'what do you KNOW, 'what do you WANT to know' and 'what did you LEARN'. The objective of using this graphic organizer is to encourage learning in an effective manner that is both fun for the students as well as being simpler for them making it easier for the students to break down information sequentially, present it in an organized manner and thus retain more information. (Teacher Vision, 2008) For this assignment involving research work, the use of graphic organizer will be made mandatory. First the teacher will show the form of the KWL chart (attached) on the board. Then the three parts of the KWL will be explained as to what purpose each part serves and what will be included in each section. After giving this introduction to the graphic organizer, the assignment will be given and students will collect information from wherever they can think of. For the convenience of the students, the teacher would include the following questions in each part in respect to this particular assignment. 1. What Do We Know In the first part the students would have to state what they already know about obesity. This can include the general perceptions, reasons for obesity and the problems caused by it. 2. What Do We Want To Know The second part will help the students find out what is actually required. This will include the statistics on obesity, general trends in men and women, and obesity as a disease. Furthermore this tool will help the students explore the topic based on their previous knowledge which will mean that the students are genuinely interested as they are researching more than is required by the assignment. 3. What We Learned The last part is the reflection on the assignment to know what was learned from this exercise. This reflection will act as a refresher of the
Friday, November 1, 2019
Failure of Financial Regulation in the UK - Essay Example This essay evaluates the failures of financial policies in United Kingdom and the move made by policy makers to cushion the country from falling into financial crisis. Financial crisis witnessed towards end of this decade had similar effects to crisis witnessed in 1970s. Many people grappled in unemployment, devaluation of wealth and other related issues that come when economic depression occurs1. G 20 meeting realized that policy tools made to cushion the world from economic slump had failed to discharge their role. It was also apparent from that meeting that the banking policies of United Kingdom and related market players had stains to the crisis. Growth in a country or in the world depends on sound policies, which balances the financial market and enhances economic stability. Economists and analysts in the economic sector believe that fiscal tools, which guide the economic growth of the country, must meet a certain threshold if the country is to remain stable. Deliberation of the meeting indicated that credit securitization is a factor that policy makers in the financial sector ignored2. Many banks offered credit loans to investors without collaterals that could support financial stability. The banks could not raise the minimum threshold required to make them remain in businesses after the investors had defaulted. The result was as worst as the financial depression of 1970s. Critics have contributed to this situation by making different argument about the country should do to avoid similar misfortune. The argument has rested on the effects of policy, which influence banking system. Some critics noted that policies instituted to correct the dangers of economic depression failed because of poor implementation strategy, which aimed at making the country more economically sound. Many economists believe that policy tools adopted in the banking sector created a window, which led to the economic meltdown. Evidently, a weakness of a policy can create instability as observed during the financial crisis. The major question that the society is trying to answer is not what caused the depression but how it can avoid the depression in future. Analysts have settled on the fact that failure of UK financial system is the contributor of the economic crisis. Economists have stated three reasons, which support the argument that policy failure led to financial meltdown. First, the role of financial market is to regulate market economy3. This regulation occurs through relationship that exists between the financial system and the market players. Economists believe that financial relationships influence market structures by creating stability and instability in the market. This means that financial system is the key driver to propel market structures towards making balance payment in the market. A failure of the system spells doom to the society since it creates imperfect operation in the market. Evidently, a slight mess bin the market would contribute to a collapse of other systems in the financial sector. Financial analysts have sited burst and boom factors as factors that directly influence market stability. Financial system usually look at credit supply and credit pricing as factors that control speculation in the burst and boom factors. Studies indicate that internet burst and boom witnessed in 1998-2001 increased the liquidity index in the country4.