Monday, September 30, 2019

Horizontal Violence Experienced During Orientation in the Intensive Care Units Essay

Looking back at the literature review, evidences from several studies have shown how nurses over the past several years have continued a trend of horizontal violence that began decades ago. These nurses felt that to prove that before a novice nurse will be ready to enter the profession, there must be a test or rite of passage that they should pass and be able to get through. The said rite of passage was formerly practiced from one generation of nurses and passed it on to the next generation. This creates an atmosphere of bullying by condoning the practice of such rites or hazing practices that happen to novice nurses in return to prove their ability to perform in the pressure intense environment. Given the above premise, it is the purpose of this study to look into the novice nurse and the type of horizontal violence they may be experiencing in different types of intensive care units (ICU) during the orientation process. Through this study, there can be a validation of whether or not horizontal violence does occur in the ICU during nurse orientation. If it does, by looking at horizontal violence in various ICU’s, an understanding of such type of violence among new novice nurses may be developed. It is also the purpose of this study to provide the most accurate answers possible to this paper’s research questions. To reiterate, the questions are as follows: (1) While in orientation, do novice nurses experience horizontal violence in the ICU’s in a Midwestern magnet status hospital? ; (2) Is bullying present during the orientation process in the ICU? (3) Do the novice nurses experience sabotage while in orientation? ; and (4) Has the novice nurses experienced feeling like an outcast or have they experienced name-calling during their orientation in the cardiovascular ICU? One theory that stands out when discussions on the theoretical framework with regard to horizontal violence is Paulo Freire’s oppression theory. Theorist Paulo Freire first presented the oppression theory in 1972 when explaining the confl ict of the colonized African populations. This theory discusses the observance of the imbalance of power due to dominate and subordinate groups. The oppression theory discusses how two groups are involved and the dominate group maintains higher power than the subordinate group. The oppression occurs when the subordinate group’s culture is repressed by the dominant group. Due to the subordinate group feeling repressed, the subordinate group begins to act out their self-hatred on each other. By doing this, the values and beliefs that were held by the subordinate group are soon lost and self-hatred settles in. In 1983, Sandra Roberts, applied the oppression theory to nursing and argued that an â€Å"understanding of the dynamics underlying leadership of an oppressed group is an important strategy to develop more effective leaders in nursing to be successful. † (Bartholomew, 2006). Roberts noted that nursing had displayed the dominate group along with the subordinate group referring to the leadership in the nursing profession. The dominate group makes various decisions without respecting the values of the subordinate group the nurses working on the floor with the patients. Through this process, the subordinate group loses respect for the dominate groups value system and become oppressed with feelings of low self-esteem, self-hatred, and powerlessness. With the oppression theory there is a sub-subordinate group that feels the results of the oppression theory and this is the novice nurses being hired into the nursing profession. During the orientation phase the novice nurses fall into a subgroup resulting in oppression trying to bring the novice nurses through the rite of passage to be a nurse in the unit that the orientation is occurring. Organizations fashioned to be hierarchical have not fostered a culture of professional collegiality, nor have they advanced the role of nursing. Too often, nurses have acquiesced to a victim mentality that only facilitates a sense of powerlessness. Nurses have reported concern about the lack of action taken by supervisors in addressing horizontal violence in the workplace (Farrell, 1997; Stanley et al. , 2007). While not directly addressing bullying or horizontal violence, Kramer (1974) described the â€Å"reality shock† occurring for new graduates when they encountered differences in their perception of what nursing could be and the actual reality of the workplace. Kramer suggested that â€Å"reality shock† can manifest as hopelessness and dissatisfaction, which is a prelude to conflict in the workplace (p. ). Today, bullying is an international phenomenon not limited to the healthcare arena, and abuse can also occur between professions. The phrase â€Å"nurses eat their young,† has been used to describe the negative behaviors directed toward new nurses (Rowe & Sherlock, 2005). Griffin (2004) described the vulnerability of newly licensed nurses as they are socialized into the nursing workforce; lateral violence affected their perception of whether to remain in their current position. Sofield and Salmond (2003) found that primarily physicians, then patients, and patients’ families were responsible for most of the verbal abuse towards nurses. One-third of respondents expressed they would consider resignation in response to verbal abuse; it was concluded that nurses lacked the skills to deal with the verbal abuse and perceived themselves as powerless to change organizational response (Sofield & Salmond, 2003). Cox found the most frequent source of verbal abuse was physicians, and in descending order patients, families and peers, supervisors and subordinates (1991). The turn-over attributed to verbal abuse was 24 percent for staff nurses and 25 percent for nurse managers (Cox, 1991) Cook, Green and Topp (2001) found that perioperative nurses encountered verbal abuse by physicians. However, Rowe and Sherlock (2005) reported that nurses in particular were the most frequent source of verbal abuse towards other nurses. Patients’ families were the second most frequent source, followed by physicians and then patients (Rowe & Sherlock, 2005). In 2004, The Institute for Safe Medication Practices published a survey on workplace intimidation. Almost half of the 2,095 respondents, which included nurses, pharmacists and other providers, recalled being verbally abused when contacting physicians to question or clarify medication prescriptions; intimidation had played a role in either not questioning a concerning order or seeking ways not to directly confront the prescribers. While physicians and prescribers used intimidating behaviors, however they were not the only intimidating healthcare providers (Institute for Safe Medication Practices, 2004). In a hostile environment, communication is hindered and this can affect quality of care and patient safety (Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 2002). Healthcare providers report intimidation does alter communication and negatively impacts patient care and safety (Institute for Safe Medication Practices, 2004). Healthcare professionals facing intimidation may sometimes choose to abdicate their advocacy role to avoid intimidating behaviors, impacting patient safety. The Institute for Safe Medication Practices survey (2004) revealed that more experienced nurses are more likely to encounter intimidating behaviors; differences in intimidating encounters were not appreciably different in terms of gender but females were more likely to ask another colleague to talk with the intimidator for them. The organization’s effectiveness in handling intimidation was viewed less favorably by those nurses and pharmacists with more years of practice in that facility (Institute for Safe Medication Practices, 2004). To add strength to this study, more literature that points to the ICU being one of the top places in the healthcare setting to be the venue for horizontal violence. Bullying in the medical setting is said to happen most of the time in the top three areas, i. e. , medical or surgical units, intensive care units (ICU) and the emergency department (ER). The occurrences of horizontal violence are lesser in the areas such as child health and maternal health areas, psychiatry and operating rooms. This is the result of findings such as those made by WHO. The World Health Organization has been showing concern with the horizontal violence happening in healthcare settings and has been aware of the problem becoming an epidemic already and has started to think of solutions by first producing guidelines in dealing with the violence when it happens. WHO touched on the patient to nurse type of violence as well and the effects it has on the emotions of the nurses. The results of the survey made by WHO also made a significant finding, that the highest rating for workplace violence was in the areas of highest acuity like the intensive care units. This made even stronger the need to find out the prevalence of horizontal violence in the ICU. With all the above literature taken from scholarly journals and books, it is quite apparent that horizontal violence is indeed present in the healthcare industry today. There are even some studies held that have proven its existence in the intensive care unit. Most of the studies made point to the new or novice nurses as the main victim, with other more superior nurses being their main predators. To get concrete evidence of its existence in the ICU during orientation in a Midwestern magnet status hospital and to get further evidence on horizontal violence in the ICU, a study about it based on a cross sectional non-experimental explanatory research model and the Likert Scale which will further be discussed in the next topics. Design  Novice nurses that have been in orientation in various types of ICU for the past three to six months were asked to participate in the survey. Those that participated were nurses that have attended orientation in any of the intensive care units, i. e. , surgical ICU, cardiovascular ICU, coronary ICU or general ICU. All these novice nurses were given the same survey questions in relation to understanding whether they have experienced horizontal violence while they were in orientation. With looking at several different ICUs, there are varying variables that are influenced. Firstly, each participating intensive care unit has different formats for their orientation process. There are also different educators for each of the ICUs and varying preceptors orienting each of the novice nurses. A cross sectional non-experimental explanatory research model will be used to conduct the survey of novice nurses in different types of ICU’s. The survey will be given to novice nurses that have been in orientation in the ICU’s for the past three to six months. Out of the novice, nurses that are surveyed there will be varying educational backgrounds along with different work experience. The common thread among the novice nurses will be that they are novice nurses in the area they are orienting in at the time the survey is administered. Strengths of this study will look at a cross section of the novice nurses in orientation in a Midwestern hospital to investigate the occurrences of horizontal violence during orientation. Due to the cross section, this study will also give illumination to the working relationship between novice nurses and expert nurses during orientation in the intensive care units. This study will provide a base for educational purposes on how to improve the relationships between the novice nurses and expert nurses during orientation in the intensive care units. Another benefit from the study, there will be a study that has looked at the type of horizontal violence that is occurring during the orientation process in the intensive care units. This will give the building blocks to educating the expert nurses in how to be more encouraging towards the novice nurses during the orientation process. The reason in using this non-experimental quantitative research model is due to the fact that many of the most vital variables of interest in this study are not manipulable. This is however not indicative of any less methodology employed. Many researchers actually make use of non-experimental research since it is highly descriptive and it allows effective communications in an interdisciplinary research environment. Non-experimental quantitative research is an essential area of research due to its many vital though non-manipulable independent variables that may need further study. Some known methodologists even say that non-experimental research (Kerlinger, 1986) is more important that experimental research in such as way that educational and social research problems may not lend themselves to experimentation but lend themselves to controlled inquiry that is of the non-experimental type. The mentioned characteristics of this kind of research model make it a good choice for this particular study.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Impact of Employee Commitment On Employee performance Essay

Employee commitment permanently shows a vigorous part to expand the employees’ performance. Committed employees provide an immense input to organizations in standings of their performance. The study explored the effect of the employee’s commitment on employee’s performance. Data was collected through 200 questionnaires from the employees of banking, telecommunication and education sector from Lahore, Pakistan. For data analysis SPSS16 version was used. The outcomes display a positive and significant association between employee commitment and employee performance. Additionally, comparative analysis of the three dimensions of employee commitment (affective, continuous and normative commitment) shows a positive and significant impact of employee commitment on employee performance. The interpretations, limitations, implications and conclusions are also debated at the end of the study. KEY WORDS: Employee commitment (EC), Affective commitment (AC), Continuous commitment (CC), Normative commitment (NC), Employee Performance (EP). INTRODUCTION:  Employee commitment denotes to emotional affection of employees to the place of work. Now times it is compulsory for every organization to have complete level of its employee’s commitment. In this fashion organizations can have an exceptional performance on extended duration foundation. In the current age when employees work as a team and each team member attempts his greatest efforts to show himself at top among all. All such things rise the commitment level of the employees which as a consequence intensification the enactment of the employees. To get economical advantage every employee of the organization must be committed to the administrative purposes. Still the employee commitment is the utmost puzzling and researchable perception in the arenas of organization and executive behavior. In former times organizations offer job safety to expand the commitment level of the employees which pointers to the enhanced employee’s performance. Advanced level of the employee commitment at singular smooth and administrative level is the crucial element of the superior employee performance. Meyer and Allen’s (1991) established a three-component prototypical of organizational commitment. The three- component model was a inclusive and comprehensible theory for OC. The three-component model consists of: (a)Affective  commitment (AC) is the demonstrative supplement to one’s organization. (b)Continuous commitment (CC) is the affection founded on the addition of respected side risks (pension, skill transferability, rearrangement and self-investment) that differentiate with the organizational participation. (c)Normative commitment (NC) is the linking that is shaped on motivation to duplicate to communal customs about attachment. LITERATURE REVIEW: The article written by Whyte in 1956 in his book â€Å"The organization Man† gives the concept of commitment. Commitment originates when a person makes a side link and extraneous interests with a reliable and consistent activity. The person who remains for a long time with the organization shows his commitment towards the organization. Commitment helps to improve the individual as well as the performance of the organization as a whole. Commitment behavior is also explained by many other researchers(A.Yousef, 1998). Commitment explains the association of large number of systems as an overall link (AlexandraPanaccio & Vandenberghe, 2012). The enthusiasm of collective performers to offer their energy and devotion to social systems, the addition of personality systems to shared associations who are seen as self- sensitive(Ashar, Ghafoor, Munir, & Hafeez, 2013). commitment (1) contains somewhat of the conception of the affiliation; (2) it replicates the existing place of the individual; (3) it has a unusual forecaster probable, providing guesses regarding definite traits of performance , motivation to work, natural input and other correlated results; (4) it propose the distinctive importance of motivational factors(Ashraf, MehdiJaffri, Sharif, & Khan, 2012). To integrate and coordinate the individual and organization objectives, process of using commitment is beneficial(Ayodeji, Oyelere, Tunde, & Mariam, 2011).Commitment is â€Å"a situation in which an individual become bound by his activities and through these engagements to opinions that stand the activities of his own contribution(Chen, Silverthrone, & Hung, 2006).M ore committed employees request to dismiss from the organization at smallest level(Dixit & Bhati, 2012). Commitment is the comparative power of an individual’s empathy with and in a specific organization(Dost & Ahmad, 2011).Low commitment leads toward to extraordinary degree of turnover, however greater the level of job satisfaction and demands high level of organizational commitment which  promote to improved job performance(E.Becker, s.Billings, Eleleth, & L.Gilbert, 1996).Commitment is â€Å"an emotional state that fixes a person with the organization†(Fisher, Mcphail, & Menghetti, 2010). Commitment is a psychosomatic state that symbolizes the employee affiliation with the organization and has an inference on the conclusion to continue connection in the organization(Green, Mahyhew, & k&pack, 2000).Employee commitment diminutions the possibility of employee’s predisposition of departure the job(Khan, Ziauddin, Jam, & M.I.Rammy, 2010).Commitment as a prejudiced, affective attachment to the aims and principles of the organization, to one’s role in relative to goals and values and to the organization for its own benefit , separately from its virtuously contributory means(L.Sims & K.GalenKroeck, 1994).Employee commitment clues to extraordinary level of organizational performance and very small level of employee move from the organization(M.Steeres, 1977). The performance of committed teachers is highly different from those employees who are less committed(Macky & Boxball, 2007). Significant research has been done in the preceding to discover the methods to increase the employee performance e.g.; task performance contains activities which an employee executes to achieve responsibilities given to him by his controller or behavior linked which are the basic procedures of the happenings of the organization(P.Meyer, J.Stanely, & M.Parfyonova, 2012).Organizational performance can be sedate through three basic modules which are economic performance, merchandise market performance and return to the shareholders(Panaccio & Vandenberghe, 2012). Micro placement on method to job approaches and performance association is slightly confusing(Riketta, 2002).Organizational performance is an outcome of the employee understanding and commitment(Saleem, 2011).Developed level of employee commitment in the organizations for individual plans are to the business is supposed as a main intention for improved organizational performance that leads to the organizational success(Shahid & .m.Azhar, 2013).Reliability has been described as the best of the human state ,the better the human are committed to their undertaking will lead to their better performance(Vural, Vardarlier, & Aykir, 2012). Theoretical Framework: The correlation between employee commitment (independent variable) and  employee performance (dependent variable) is presented in the form of schematic diagram; the employee commitment is further divided into three dimension affective, continuous and normative commitment. (Independent Variable)(Dependent Variable) STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: The most important interest of the study is to investigate the impact of employee commitment on employee performance and to find the relationship of affective, continuous and normative commitment with employee performance in telecom sector, banking sector and educational sector in city of Lahore (Pakistan). VARIABLES OF THE STUDY: The Variables under the study are Employee commitment as independent variable and employee performance as dependent variable. Commitment has been further divided into three dimension affective, continuous, and normative commitment. Employee commitment: According to Meyer &Allen (1990) commitment is defined as â€Å"the employee’s emotional state of responsibility to stay with the organization, feelings subsequent from the internalization of normative stress exercised on an individual earlier to or following entry†. Reyes (2001) has defined commitment as â€Å"a one-sided, affective attachment to the aims and values of the organization, to one’s role in relative to objectives and principles and to the organization for its own interest, distant from its virtuously influential value†. Employee Performance: According to Meyer& Allen (1990) employee performance has been well-defined as â€Å"the job performance is the work experience in standings of measure and excellence projected from each employee†. . Richard (2009) said that â€Å"organizational performance can be restrained through three basic components which are economic performance, product market performance and reoccurrence to the shareholders. Dimensions of employee commitment: Meyer& Allen (1991) developed a three-component model of organizational  commitment which has been the foremost outline for organizational commitment. The three component model consists of: (A)Affective commitment: Numerous studies, define the affective commitment as a significant orientation of the employees towards the organization, some researchers designate affective approach as â€Å"the supplement of an individual’s set up of affectivity and reaction to the group. Affective commitment prevails to the goals and values and to the organization for its own interest. Porter and Mow day (1979) designate affective approach as â€Å"the absolute strength of an individual’s empathy with the association in a certain organization†. (b)Continuous commitment: When the employees arrive into the organization they are guaranteed to commit with the organization because of the absence of substitute chances and responsiveness of the cost linked with departure the organization. Continuous commitment improves on the basis of two aspects: (1) quantity of stashes that individuals make in their existing organization (2) perceived lack of alternatives†. Continuous commitment is a â€Å"cognitive-continuance commitment as that which arises when there is a profit related with continued involvement and a cost accompanying with leaving†. Some researchers tell that the â€Å"continuous commitment can be sub-divided into high expense commitment (personal sacrifice linked with the departure) and low substitute commitment (restricted opportunities for other employment)†. (c)Normative commitment: Normative commitment develops on the basis of earlier experience for example family-based experience or cultural experience. March (1977) said that â€Å"the normative aspects develop as individual’s perception of their moral responsibility to remain with the exhaustive organization regardless of the status improvement or fulfillment the organization gives the individual over the year†. Normative commitment can be increased through the additional reimbursements given to the employee by the employer. Steven (1978) said that â€Å"an individual is keen to stay within the organization and donate to an organization to resemble with a individual custom†. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. To explore the impact of employee’s commitment on employee performance; 2. To understand the impact of affective, continuous and normative commitment that they have positive and significant effect on employees’ performance; 3. To access some of the possible ways in which organizations can improve the performance of the employees; 4. To analyze that the employee commitment is a key factor towards employee performance; 5. To conclude that a better strategic vision to enable the organization both at the governmental and institutional level to ensure the higher level of employee’s performance. HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY: H1: There is a relationship between the employee commitment and employee performance. H2: There is a relationship between the affective commitment and employee performance. H3: There is a relationship between continuous commitment and employee performance. H4: There is a relationship between normative commitment and employee performance. RESEARCH DESIGN: (1) Instrument: The research targets to study the impact of employee commitment on employee performance. Data was collected through Questionnaire. The employee commitment Questionnaire consists of 18 items (related to affective, continuous, normative commitment), each factor consisted of 6 questions each in which 9 items were taken from the organizational commitment questionnaire by Allen Mayer. The second part of questionnaire is related to the employee performance and consists of 10 items. The questions were measured on a five point Liker’s scale developed by William Anderson(1991)ranging from(1)strongly disagree,(2)Disagree,(3)Neither agree nor disagree,(4)Agreed,(5)strongly-agree this research paper employee commitment(affective, continuous, normative) taken as independent variable and employee performance is taken as dependent variable. First pilot study was conducted by using 25 questionnaires. The crown back alpha was 70% in pilot study. After conducting pilot study some modifications were made in the questionnaire, these changes were made in the items which were creating ambiguity and miss- understanding among the respondents.200 Questionnaires were again used to collect the data from the respondents. The questionnaires were duly distributed and collected from the respondents of the Lahore. The  reliability and analyses were done by using SPSS. (2)Sample: A sample of 200 Questionnaires was used to conduct the research on the topic impact of employee commitment on employee performance. The Stratified random sampling was used for data collection .Liker five point scales was used having two extreme ends. It is a causal type of investigation; the main purpose was to find the impact of employee commitment on employee performance. The research was conducted in a non-contrived study environment means that the study was conducted in a natural environment; it was a cross-sectional study. (3)Subjects: The data was collected from the employees of the three major sectors (banking, telecommunication and education sector), the data collection was confined to the city of Lahore. DATA ANALYSIS: The data will be collected through questionnaires entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS); following tools were uses for analysis: Regression analysis and correlation tests. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: 1. The study was conducted and data was collected only to see the impact of employee commitment of employee performance 2. The study further elaborates the relationship of the dimensions of the employee commitment (affective, continuous and normative) with the employee performance; 3. The study can also be done to know the effects of the other factors on employee performance. The cross-sectional method of study was used to collect the data which means that the research was conducted only one time, but longitudinal method of study can also be used for the better results; 4. Due to the deficiency of cost and time only one city Lahore and three sectors (banking, telecommunication and education) were used to conduct the research. The results might be different for different cities and organization. REFERENCES: A.Yousef, D. (1998). Satisfaction with job security as a predictor of organizational commitment and job performance in a multicultural environment. International Journal of Manpower, 19(3), 184-194. AlexandraPanaccio, & Vandenberghe, C. (2012). Five factor model of personality and organizational commitment:The mediating role of positive and negative affective states. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 647-658. Ashar, M., Ghafoor, M. M., Munir, E., & Hafeez, S. (2013). The impact of perceptions of trining on employee commitment and turnover intention:Evidence from Pakistan. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 3(1), 74-88. Ashraf, Z., MehdiJaffri, A., Sharif, M. T., & Khan, M. A. (2012). Increasing employee organizational commitment by corelating goal setting,employee engagement and optimism at workplace. European Journal of Business and Management, 4(2), 71-78. Ayodeji, O. O., Oyelere, M., Tunde, E., & Mariam, G.-S. (2011). Enhancing employees’ commitmentto organi zation through training. International Journal of Business and Management, 6(280-286). Chen, J.-C., Silverthrone, C., & Hung, J.-Y. (2006). Organization communication,job stress,organizational commitment and job performance of accounting professionals in Taiwan and Amercia. Leadership&Organizational Development Journal, 27(4), 242-249. Dixit, D. V., & Bhati, M. M. (2012). A study about employee commitment and its impact on sustained productivity in Indian Auto-component industry. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 1(6), 34-51. Dost, M. K. B., & Ahmad, D. Z. (2011). Impact of employee commitment on organizational performance. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 1(3), 87-98. E.Becker, T., s.Billings, R., Eleleth, D. M., & L.Gilbert, N. (1996). Foci and bases of employee commitment:Implications for job performance. The Acadamy of Management Journal, 39(4), 464-482. Fisher, R., Mcphail, R., & Menghetti, G. (2010). Linking employee performance and behaviors with business performance:A comparative analysis of hotels in Mexico and China. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29, 397-404. Green, F., Felsted, Mahyhew, & k&pack. (2000). The impact of training on labour mobility:individual and firm level evidence from Britian. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 38(2), 261-275. Khan, M. R., Ziauddin, Jam, F. A., & M.I.Rammy. (2010). The impacts of organizational commitment on employee job performance. European Journal of Social Sciences, 15(3), 292-298. L.Sims, R., & K.GalenKroeck. (1994). The influence of ethical fit on employee satisfaction,commitment and turnover. Journal of Business Ethices, 13, 939-947. M.Steeres, R. (1977). Antecedentsand outcomes of organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22(1), 46-56. Macky, K., & Boxball, P. (2007). The relationship between ‘high performance work practices’and employee attitudes:an investigation of additive and interaction effects. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 537-567. P.Meyer, J., J.Stanely, L., & M.Parfyonova, N. (2012). Employee commitment in contex:The nature and implication of commitment profiles. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 1-16. Panaccio, A., & Vandenberghe, C. (2012). Five factor model of personality and organizational commitment:The mediating role of positive and negative affective states. Journal of Vocational Behavior. Riketta, M. (2002). Attitudi nal organizational commitment and job performance:a meta analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 257-266. Saleem, S. (2011). The impact of financial incentives on employee commitment European Journal of Social Sciences, 3(4), 258-367. Shahid, M. A., & .m.Azhar, D. S. (2013). Gaining emloyee commitment:Linking to organizational effectiveness. Journal of Management Research, 5(1), 250-268. Vural, Y., Vardarlier, P., & Aykir, A. (2012). The effects of using talent management with performance evaluation system over employee commitment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 340-349.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

A history of refugees

A history of refugees According to the United Nations, a refugee is a person who flees their home country due to a â€Å"well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.† From ancient to recent times, from poor areas to developed countries, refugees could be seen almost everywhere. Nowadays, although the global economy has been developing very fast, the problem of refugee still exits. With the old issues remain unsolved, the new ones also emerging, the situation of refugees did not improve a lot much. The number of refugees has kept raising and their geographical distribution has kept widening, how to find the solution to refugee problems has become a cross-century challenge for the whole world. Poverty is one of the fatal roots of the refugee problem. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), in their report on the global food and agricultural situation, points out that there are still 13% of the hum an species on earth (about 800 million) are still starving. And the phenomenon is most serious in the African continent — there were about 400 million people lack of food or clothes; Asia following Africa sees the less worst situation — there are about 300 million people are still suffering from hunger all day long; And the population in Latin America who live under the poverty line reach the number of 70 million. We notice that, the number of refugees in each continent refers to a considerable proportion of the number of people suffer from starvation. The latest United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) statistics shows that there are more than 2100 million refugees in total worldwide, of which 8.44 million in Asia, 5.33 million in Africa, 1.04 million in North America, 570 thousand in Latin America and the Caribbean, and Europe is home for 564 thousand refugees among whom mostly come from Africa, Asia and Latin America. In recent years, our whole world se es the continuous development of science and technology along with the global economy. However, food shortage is still a very fatal and serious problem. In a report released by Food and Agricultural Organization in March, it demonstrated that due to continuous natural disasters, there are now 60 million people living in 33 different countries are facing various degrees of food insecurity problems. The report, entitled â€Å"Shortage of Food and Crops†, said that some African area in the south of sub-Saharan region is facing the most serious food deficit — 16 countries in that area are in extreme food shortage. In East Africa, although the situation of the year-long drought has been improved last year, yet 18 million people live in Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Sudan and Tanzania still need the international community to continue to provide emergency food aid. In Mozambique and other southern African countries, the recent outbreak of floods caused severe damage to crops, an d these countries also need access to food aid too. Many countries in Asia are also troubled by the shortage of food. Serious food crisis has begun in Afghanistan due to continuing civil war and drought. East and Central Asia countries such as Armenia, Georgia and Tajikistan are also in the need of food aid due to the droughts happened in their domestics. Food shortages directly threaten the lives of local residents, in order to survive, the population in poor area was forced to leave their homes and become refugees of no fixed abodes.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Thinkers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Thinkers - Essay Example This shift from mythic to rational mentality can be characterized as a movement from Who and Why questions about the cosmos to What and How questions. This shift occurred in part as a side-effect of frustration with the irreconcilable conflict of answers to Who and Why questions that were encountered on a regular basis in the trading city of Milesia, where cosmogonic myths would have been swapped along with goods. The Greeks were interested in the nature of the universe. What was it made out of How did it get there How does it stay in place How did it begin They asked these questions and they tried to answer them.The Pre-Socratics were the first theoretical philosophers in human history. They emerged in the 6th century b.c.e. in the Greek cities of Ionia. They were interested about the essential composition of nature and dissatisfied with earlier creation legends. The Ionians sought natural (physical) rather than religio-mythic (metaphysical) explanations for natural occurrences. They maintained that arbitrary and willful gods did not manipulate nature, and it wasn't governed by blind chance. Even though nature seemed chaotic, it was governed by principles of order - general laws that can be ascertained by the human mind. This marked the beginning of scientific thought.The Pre-Socratics wanted to find out what the universe was made of. They were looking for the primal or first substance of th e universe. They did this by means of observation with the naked eye. They used induction rather than deduction. From observing particular occurrences they postulated general theories. They believed the universe to be simple and subject to nature's laws. They speculated on the building blocks of the universe. Group of thinkers "Presocratics" is a group of thinkers who expressed themselves in various dialect of Greek during the 500's and 400's BC, that is, before the time of Socrates and his disciple Plato. Most lived in the edge of the Greek world, in what's today the western coast of Turkey (Ionia) and the southern parts of Italy. One reason we can be misled into viewing the Presocratics as children is that their ideas are often presented in a inexperienced and confusing way. two important thinkers whom tradition opposed to each other: Heraclitus of Ephesus (in Ionia) (ca. 540-480 BC), and Parmenides of Elea (a town in southern Italy) (born ca. 539 BC). Both struggled with being, not-being, and that combination of both with which we are familiar: becoming. To get an idea of how they struggled, you should click on either name. Here we can only say: Heraclitus took change and becoming to be cyclical: for him Real, Eternal Being is precisely the chain of eternally recurrent cycles. Parmenides denied outright the possibility of thinking the concept not-being Pythagoras was the source of a lesser stream of thought during this early period. Deeply religious, he and his followers formed mysterious mystery cults devoted to the rescue and cleansing of the soul. This was achieved by the attainment of wisdom, and in its pursuit they cultivated music, science and mathematics-especially mathematics in its cosmological applications. The cosmos for them was well-ordered, and it was well- ordered because it was a material expression of numbers and numerical

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Smoking History Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Smoking History - Essay Example This essay provides a brief summary of the author’s position (James Grehan) on the topic of smoking history, that helps to reveal his primary argument in which he states that tobacco changed the cultural pulse of the Islamic nations and brought them into the modern age. James Grehan gives particular attention to the way in which it has affected the culture and society of the people who live here, how they responded to the new product and how it has managed to open up the society to new ideas and developments. Traditionally suspicious of anything new, tobacco could be said to have caused a tidal wave in the natural flow of Islamic life. Because it was a substance not directly addressed within the Qur’an, it could not easily be accepted by those with the power to interpret the laws, neither was it easily rejected when it proved to be a lucrative cash crop in many areas of the Middle East and almost instantly accessible to the rich and poor. The researcher then concluds hi s study that article ends up being very informative regarding the growth and development of the tobacco industry in the Middle East in terms of the use of the product among the people and the evolving stance of the leaders. It does not sufficiently prove that tobacco was the causal element that brought about change within the Islamic cultural group to enable them to step into the modern age with the rest of the world. As a result, the article fails to convincingly prove its point, but remains interesting through its examination of one potentiality.

Religious views on abortion Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Religious views on abortion - Essay Example There are differing opinions about the issue among various denominations and religions. A survey done by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public life has shown the statistics behind these differing opinions. In the debate concerning legalizing abortion, the general consensus among most religions is that there should be a restriction on abortion. It was found that 68% of evangelical Protestants think that abortion should not be allowed. It was also found that only about 43% of Catholics believe that abortion should be illegal. (Geoffrey, 1996) Generally speaking Buddhists strongly believe that abortion is immoral and incorrect. This is because their religion is founded on the sanctity and respect for life. There must be a respect for their five ethical guidelines. One of them discourages the destruction of life. The religion believes that there should be a high regard of all beings that have life in them. There is a non violence belief that must not be violated by all Buddhists. The other main reason why abortion is strongly opposed in Buddhism is due to a special ceremony performed by its adherents. It is called Mizuko Kuyo. This ceremony is a service designed for victims of abortions, miscarriages and stillbirths. Here, parents of the dead visit a shrine and perform this ceremony with the main intention of gaining reassurance, appeasing the spirit of the dead fetus and to grief for their dead. This ceremony is usually conducted in a specific way. The ceremony was started about thirty years ago when unavoidable circumstances forced individuals to perform abortions. It was founded on the belief that those souls who died in the process of abortion would cause retribution after the mistreatment they faced from their parents. (James, 1998) It should however be noted that there are special circumstances when it can be considered okay for mothers to abort. This was stated by one of their well known leaders; Tenzin Gyatso. This leader believes that if the fetus will grow up to be mentally retarded and if there is a danger of the parent's death during child birth, then it can be considered permissible for an abortion to occur. Just like any other religion, all Buddhists do not share the same view on this controversial topic. There are conservatives and liberalists. Those who are more tolerant believe that abortions can be done only under special circumstances. But majorities do not support it at all. (James, 1998) Hinduism and abortion The Hindu religion has a no-tolerance view on abortion. This is because they adhere to the belief that life begins at inception. They classify abortion as a sin; it is a form of murder and causes souls of the unborn to be hindered from normal progress in the journey of life. This concept was emphasized by one of their gods called Chiranjeevin. This god performed an abortion and was cursed by another god Krishna to suffer eternally. (James, 1999) Because to every rule there is an exception, there is a low level of tolerance fro the practice. This is due to the fact that there is a general preference for male children in the Hindu culture. Consequently, mothers who find out that they are

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

UM&UC Family Health Clinic - Meeting Meaningful Use of Billing Research Paper

UM&UC Family Health Clinic - Meeting Meaningful Use of Billing Function EHR InfoSys - Research Paper Example This system helps to generates more customer satisfaction, reliability and safety towards the patients. EHR system also supports the automatic recording of charges and their claims in respect to patients. This also keeps appropriate records of medicines prescribed by physicians of the respective patients to avoid mistakes and confusion. EHR system also provides effective performance in the overall medical procedure of patients. Moreover, EHR system stores all requisite records from admission to discharge of the patients to make the process of organization smooth and effective. The day-to-day requirement of every necessities whether it would be their room charges, food, medicine, treatment and testing expenses are consistently recorded in these EHR systems. Hence it can be concluded that implementation of EHR system in health care industry will help to enhance medical care, safety and services to the patients in an effective manner. This will ultimately provide a competitive advantage and profit maximization for the health care industry (Health, 2013; Carroll et al., 2012). Infosys Electronic Health Record System (EHR) is an architectural design, which must be implemented by UM & UC Family Health Clinic to improve the quality of care, safety and decisions regarding the financial management. EHR delivers comprehensive health care services through electronic devices, various tools of health management, referral management, scheduling and clinical messaging. Through the application of EHR healthcare organizations delivers extreme quality performance towards care and safety of patients. EHR will build transparency and accuracy in maintaining as well as storing of various medical records of patients. Due to the implementation of this system there will be less mix of data and the data will be stored in an organized manner. This will benefit the patients as well as the

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Comparison of the three plays in the Oedipus Trilogy in regards to the Research Paper

Comparison of the three plays in the Oedipus Trilogy in regards to the function of the chorus and how the character of Creon is - Research Paper Example As King’s most special advice, he comes second in the order of command. Creon is probably the most dynamic character in the play, in the sense that he keeps displaying different images in each of the plays in Oedipus Trilogy. Creon The image of Creon as presented in the first of the trilogy, Oedipus the King, is that of e calm, sensible character and an embodiment of the voice of reason of the reason. This is portrayed in the manner he relates to Oedipus as his special adviser. When he first appears in Oedipus the King, he is associated with good news as Oedipus asks him whether he has come with good news from the oracle to the people of Thebes. Before answering the question, he takes a precaution and informs Oedipus: â€Å"If thou wouldst hear my message publicly,/I'll tell thee straight, or with thee pass within.† He does not want to speak important matters that would be of some political value publicly, and therefore carry himself with an air of political secrecy (Ca mpbell 94). He understands that a ruler often needs to get information of fundamental political impact, so that he may be prepared on the best way to reveal it to the public. However, to this Oedipus says â€Å"speak before all; the burden that I bear is more for these my subjects than myself.† Therefore, right from the beginning, a difference may be seen: whereas Creon is very calculating and manipulative character and is cautious in as far as screening public information is concerned, Oedipus does not give an afterthought to this aspect. At a time when Oedipus is filled with rage and he storms, Creon is in control of him and keeps his calm. He warns Oedipus against Tyranny and pride. He reminds him â€Å"If thou dost count a virtue stubbornness, Unschooled by reason, thou art much astray.† He calls upon him to be composed and make a judicious reaction. In the midst of Oedipus outburst with rage, he patiently listens and tells the King: â€Å"Attend me. Thou hast spo ken, 'tis my turn To make reply. Then having †¦.O argue not that thou art not a rogue†¦.If thou dost hold a kinsman may be wronged, And no pains follow, thou art much to seek.† He therefore turns out not just to be a keen listener, but also an eloquent adviser, who can take control and prevail upon the King , to the extent that he drives his pointy home. Oedipus’s solace and reassures the King that he is no of no harm to the King. He makes it very clear that he has no intention whatsoever to usurp Oedipus from Kingship, since Oedipus, Jocasta and him rule Thebes equally. Eventually, he makes use of his honey-tongue and rhetorical questions to appeal to the King’s sense of reason. Not so, if thou wouldst reason with thyself, As I with myself. First, I bid thee think, Would any mortal choose a troubled reign Of terrors rather than secure repose, If the same power were given him? As for me, I have no natural craving for the name Of king, preferring to do k ingly deeds, And so thinks every sober-minded man. Now all my needs are satisfied through thee, And I have naught to fear; but were I king, My acts would oft run counter to my will. How could a title then have charms for me Above the sweets of boundless influence? I am not so infatuate as to grasp The shadow when I hold the substance fast. Now all men cry me

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Learning Reflection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Learning Reflection - Essay Example Therefore, the customers of this product will experience a sense of class, without spending a lot of money on the gadget. The closest brand competitor of this phone is mainly other smartphones produced by Apple Inc. However, I chose Samsung, compared to Apple because Samsung products are affordable. As a student, I have no income that would enable me purchase a smartphone from Apple, since this company produces for the top income earners in society. The price of Samsung S III has also been lowered, compared to its pricing last year. In addition, I chose to buy a Samsung phone because of the features of the phone. For instance, this phone operates on an Android operating system, compared to Apple phones, which operate on a different operating system (iOS), which is somehow difficult to use for those who are not used to Apple products. My decision to buy this Samsung phone was highly influenced by the marketing of the product. Samsung is good at marketing, compared to its competitors. The company employs diverse marketing strategies, which enable its customers to learn about new products. Samsung S III has been marketed for a long time, since last year. This is through advertising, sales promotions, internet marketing, among others. Therefore, I became more familiar with the Samsung S III, compared to other brands, and this is what finally drove me to buy the

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Competency Statement Essay Example for Free

Competency Statement Essay To advance physical and intellectual competence It is essential to the growth and development of every child to advance their physical and intellectual needs. Preschool age children have a short attention span. They learn by example, and learn by activities that are interesting to them. I keep their minds fresh by including fun games in the weekly lesson plan that improves their physical, cognitive and creative development. I do this on a daily basis. I sing songs, read books and talk about shapes, colors, numbers and letters. I encourage all children to be active, especially, during outside play. I provide the children with opportunities to develop their upper body strength by rolling balls, swinging, and throwing bean bags. I also focus on running, jumping, and balancing to help strengthen their lower bodies. At the center, we come up with all sorts of active games to build up both gross and fine motor skills. I included a game called â€Å"Sleeping Giants† into my weekly plan that is a combination of pretend play and physical activity. The â€Å"Sleeping Giants† game stimulates imagination and multi-directional movement while strengthening their heart, lungs, muscles, and agility. During the game, children will use their large motor skills to run or jump while listening for me to say â€Å"Sleeping Giants†. When I call out, the children will try their hardest to stay quiet to represent a sleeping giant. Then when I call out â€Å"Walking Giants† the game continues and allows the children to be active and freely express themselves.

Friday, September 20, 2019

What It Means To Be Canadian

What It Means To Be Canadian To no ones surprise, being a Canadian means different things to different people and it is quite commonplace for many Canadians to have multiple identities and even multiple allegiances. Predictably, it is not always clear how these multiple identities can fit into Canadian society and fault lines inevitably arise between those with different identities. The next several pages will look at the oldest fault-line of them all at least among Canadians of European extraction which is the fault line between English-speaking Canadians and French-speaking Canadians. It resonates with this writer because, frankly, so much of our constitutional and political history has been wrapped up with trying to resolve the grievances and insecurities of French Canadians. For those within and without this fault line, Canadian identity is complicated because those who fall outside it people who have arrived from Asia or the Caribbean or from various other parts of the world are subtly reminded, through official bilingualism and through the constant constitutional wrangling over whether or not Quebec is a distinct society, that perhaps they are not true or authentic Canadians in the way some other groups are. Further, for French Canadians, the battle has always been between identifying themselves as Canadians or identifying themselves as French-Canadians who deserve to stand apart from other Canadians. This paper will look at the French-English divide in Canada by providing a brief historical overview of the tensions that have long existed between the two sides; as should be plain, the divide has been with us since before Confederation and will surely be with us for some time still to come. The paper will then turn to look at the introduction of Bill 101 in 1977 and how that ushered in a new era of strained English-French relations. With that out of the way, the paper will subsequently observe how the fault line in general has complicated how people who associate with this group identity interact within Canadian society? In short, how have French Canadians (the minority group and the group most likely to be inflamed by linguistic considerations) interacted within Canada in light of the powerful divide that separates them and that exacerbates their hostilities towards one another? With special reference to French Canadians, what does it mean to them (or what has it meant to them rec ently) to be Canadian within the context of Canada? Last of all, the essay will explore what the future of the Canadian national identity might well be should tensions in this fault line increase or tensions in other fault lines increase. We can all imagine that simmering tensions will weaken the connective tissue that binds Canadians together and will create the prospect for the fragmentation of Canadian society unless common ground is found. The only saving grace for Canada with regards to this particular English-French divide is that demographic factors may end up resolving it by changing the composition of Quebec and of Canada so dramatically that the country no longer much cares about English-French hostilities. Historical context of the English-French divide The simple reality is that tensions between English and French have always been a part of the Canadian landscape. In the eighteenth century, the British and French bitterly wrestled for control of North America and, at the end of that century and in the early decades of the next one, there was a significant divide between the French Canadians of Lower Canada and the English elites of that province who deigned to pass measures from on high. Suffice it to say, the educated professional elite that dominated the legislative assembly of Lower Canada from the turn of the nineteenth century onwards reacted most negatively to the disproportionate power held by (and general unresponsiveness exhibited by) the English-dominated colonial executive (executive council) and by the British-appointed governor (Greer, 1993). The end result was the ill-fated and violent 1837 Rebellion in Lower Canada when French-Canadian nationalists finally exploded in armed outrage at the refusal of the British gover nment to seriously contemplate the democratization of the Legislative Council (Breakenridge Read, 2008). As most students of Canadian history are aware, the aforementioned rebellion led to the Durham Report of 1839 wherein John Lambton, the Earl of Durham, advocated the cultural assimilation of French Canadian Lower Canada into a larger union with Lower Canada that would be dominated by the English. In effect, the best way to resolve the sense of grievance percolating in the hearts of French Canadians was to simply assimilate them (Van Male, 1997). For Lord Durham, what was tearing at the entrails of Lower Canada was a profound ethnic and linguistic conflict that fundamentally involved two nations warring in the bosom of a single state (quoted in Greer, 1993, p.153). Ultimately, though tensions did lessen somewhat from their high water mark in the late 1830s, the old animosity never completely went away: at least one observer has written about this tragic element in our historyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.this is a country of ingrown prejudicesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦.unthinking, irrational and mean (Lower Q uoted in Cameron, 1997, p.372). During the subsequent generations, the animus between French Canadians and English Canadians always lurked just beneath the surface and could burst into flame at any moment. In general, many of the most significant moments in Canadian history have either revolved around French-English rapprochement the original constitutional deliberations of the 1860s or have revolved around French-Canadian animosities spilling into the open: the Conscription Crises of Two World Wars; the Richard riots of the 1950s; the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s and the federal governments attempts to head off Quebec nationalism; and the hotly-contested separatist referenda of 1980 and 1995. If one wants to understand the constitutional morass of the 1970s and 1980s (or 1990s) or if one wants to understand the original inspiration for Canadian multiculturalism (for more on how official multiculturalism under Trudeau was chiefly a response to Quebec nationalism, please see Tierney, 2007), then one must understand the fault line between English and French in Canada. Naturally, one of the greatest sources of tension of all was the battle on the part of French Canadians to protect the ir linguistic inheritance from the encroachment of the English majority. Discussion and analysis: how has the divide between English and French, and the formulation of Bill 101, impacted the interactions between the two groups within Canada? The 1977 Quebec language law was probably an inevitable consequence of the Quiet Revolution of the 1960s; protecting French culture from Les Anglais, after all, necessarily meant protecting the language from desecration and from conquest at the hands of English. Specifically, French-Canadian academics at the start of the 1970s wrote that the history of French Canada within the Canadian Confederation was very often a history of fighting to maintain the integrity of the French language. The passage of the Trudeau governments Official Language Law in 1970 saw French recognized as an official language in all federal affairs and constituted a victory of sorts, but the corresponding (and rather surprising) efforts of the Quebec government to pass Bill 63 a bill that would have granted the English language official status in Quebec was perceived as a direct threat to the primacy of the French language and viewed as setting the groundwork for the anglification of the population of Quebec ( Angers, 1970). Obviously, this raised the temperature in the room when it came to the ongoing debate about what measures should be taken to protect the French language in Quebec and expedited the arrival of Bill 101. The fault line between French Canada and English Canada has impacted or complicated how both groups (but particularly French Canadians) interact with Canada and with their Canadian identity in the sense that it has created a hyphenated group of Canadians who can be reliably expected to break down on the issues according to their linguistic background. The great conscription crises and the animus unleashed in the two referendum campaigns nearly a generation apart attest to how people on both sides (but especially French Canadians) have elected to define themselves by the language they speak than by the country of which they are a part. Bill 101, maybe more than any other single piece of legislation, reminded all Canadians of how the fault line between English and French was predicated upon concerns over language and, specifically, whose language would survive over time. Examining the act itself, Bill 101 was an act that mandated a number of things that could only have heightened the mistrust and paranoia of the English-speaking minority in Quebec at the same time as it surely disenchanted new arrivals from elsewhere in the world. Notably, Bill 101 decreed that French-only public signs were to be a feature of the province; French became the language of work in public institutions; and the autonomy of English schools in Quebec was sharply reduced (Levine, 1990). And, as most students are aware, and as our course notes remind us, Bill 101 also mandated that all students receive their schooling in French. The bill was a shot across the bow of English Quebec and divided Canadians dramatically along ethic and linguistic affiliation. To get to the heart of the matter, for French Canadians, Bill 101 was simply a re-conquest that merely asserted that French was the dominate language of la Belle Province; for English-speaking Quebeckers, however, the passage of Bill 101 was a clear repudiation of the English language as it stripped away the Charter status of the English language and also limited the rights and privileges of a linguistic group that, historically, had wielded most of the power in Quebec (Levine, 1990, p.119). Now, and maybe forever after, the centrality of language to ones conception of his or herself and his or her place in Canada could no longer be swept under the rug and the pretence that we were/are all loyal Canadians first was shattered. In general, Bill 101 has allowed the French language to retain somewhat of its lustre amongst visible minorities arriving in Quebec: recent data compiled by the Canadian Human Rights Commission indicates that, by a 2 to 1 margin, French is the first official language of visible minorities in the province (Canadian Human Rights Commission, 2007). Source: Canadian Human Rights Commission. (2007). Strategic Initiatives: section 6 Quebec. Retrieved August 5, 2010 from Information such as that above indicates that any hopes of complete English conquest of Quebec will have to wait for a little while longer. In fact, a closer look at the data reveals that the number of Quebeckers who identify English as their Mother Tongue appears to be declining and has been for several years (Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages, 2007). Source: Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages. (2007). Ethnolinguistic composition of the population. OCOL. Retrieved August 5, 2010 from We can safely conclude that language laws have contributed, even if indirectly, to the exodus of English speakers out of Quebec and to the polarization of sentiments between English and French within Quebec. However, such language laws do not guarantee the future of the French language in the province given the mass influx of new Canadians who speak neither English nor French or who are disinterested in learning French. For many French Canadians, being Canadian may still mean being French Canadian first above all else; however, as the demographic shape of Canada changes due to high immigration, they may find themselves even more isolated than ever before but this time isolated within a huge polyglot nation where the competing languages are not just English but dozens, or even hundreds, of others. At the end of it all, any increased tensions between French and English in Canada will tear at the Canadian national identity in the sense that it undermines the legitimacy of the confederation to have the two founding languages fighting with one another. On the other hand, even if simmering tensions will only intensify the self-identification of French Canadians with their French heritage, the reality is that all the chauvinism in the world may not matter chiefly because French Canada and English Canada are becoming relatively smaller pieces of the Canadian mosaic as the nation welcomes in people from Asia, from Africa, from South America and from Eastern Europe who do not have either language as their first language. Ultimately, if other divides in Canada fall the French-English model and grow more acrimonious, then the countrys future could be at risk; however, the French-English divide will probably become less important over time. Conclusion The past several pages have looked at the English-French divide in Canada, the ancient fault-line, and have argued that language laws instituted in Quebec surely did not help in bringing the two sides together; if anything, ancient animosities were revived. However, Canada is a changing nation and that means that no one can safely assume that Canada will tear apart if the gulf between English and French widens. The future is uncertain, but it is unlikely that the French and English divide will remain the dominant one in Canadian life simply because Canada is a country that is moving beyond its French/English past.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

The Coco Mademoiselle Perfume Commercial Essay -- Marketing, Post Femi

The ideal post-modern woman is a collage of charm, grace, beauty, strength and independence. This ideal is what Keira Knightley epitomizes in the Coco Mademoiselle perfume commercial. A far cry from the original feminist movement which was entrenched in politics this post-feminism created a realm where woman sought all the riches of the feminist movement but shunned the feminist title (Goldman 1992, 130). Keira is presented as a beautiful independent woman, who is free from the hold of men and sexually liberated. However, through close examination, it is clear that her independence is in relation to her power over the men in the commercial. Further, this power is simply power over the man whom she wishes to seduce. The commercial begins with Keira slipping into her loft in the early morning, wearing only a men’s white dress shirt and black hat. She looks past the camera, never making eye-contact. Keira is presented as the super-woman which Goldman (1992) describes as â€Å"sublimely self-confident and secure, poised, effortlessly beautiful, [moving] with a style and grace called ‘presence’... independent and successful; liberated, yet feminine and romantic; modern, yet traditional at the same time† (107-108). By looking past the camera Keira becomes the subject of envy. This envy can only be achieved by distance, we look to her but she does not look back at us, her demeanour signifies confidence, which we watch but do not have a connection to (Goldman 1992, 118). Throughout the ad, Keira exudes a confidence in a playful yet mature way. This confidence, however, rises from her relation to men. At the beginning of the commercial she is dressed in a way that implies she has just left her lover’s room. So the ‘presence’ which she hold... ...desire for control leads to a fetishization of the female body. This fetishization in turn lends itself to the consumption of commodities (Goldman 1992, 113), as the perfect femme fatal is impossible to achieve outside of a James Bond movie. This all for control over men, which ironically shows that if so much emphasis is placed on control of men, are woman really in control? The feminist movement was aimed at gaining equality between sexes, yet we have raped this movement of all its political meanings. Women have objectified themselves in order to gain power over men, while pursuing freedom from the objectification of men. This Chanel commercial clearly demonstrates how woman objectify themselves in order to show a form of control over men. This need for control actually shows women’s failure to justify their position in society separate of its relation to men.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Will lowering the drinking age solve the problem of binge drinking amon

Alcohol; it’s something Americans enjoy, whether it is at a party, before meals, during the football game, with our buddies, so on and so forth. Alcohol has been a part of human civilization for hundreds of thousands of years and is linked but not limited to, pleasure, and sociability in many people’s minds. Up until 1984 the legal age for people to drink was eighteen, that age was then raised up to twenty-one in order to reduce the death rate of many teenagers who were dying because of alcohol related problems. Today, many people believe that lowering the drinking age back down to eighteen would reduce and or solve the problem of binge drinking among college students. A simple answer can be conjured up, no. What many people don’t realize is that alcohol, (if started at a younger age) cause’s more severe problems to health as they mature; an eighteen year old isn’t anywhere near as mature and developed as someone who is twenty-one or older, and we need to focus on the certain type of kids who are binge drinking and fix those individuals. In a class I am taking this quarter called Lifespan psychology, we are currently learning about the negative effects alcohol has on adolescence. When drinking is started at a younger age the body becomes more dependent on the substances you put it in because if it is frequently used, your body is growing and maturing but with these substances present. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, â€Å"the younger a person is when he or she starts drinking, the greater his or her chance is of becoming addicted to alcohol at some point in life. Hangovers from drinking and sudden withdrawal from alcohol typically produce a general state of unhappiness, with elements of anxiety ... .... Glasses, Joanne. "Alcohol and Those Under Twenty-One Don't Mix." Kirszner and Mandell 374-75. Print. Herman, Andrew. "Raise the Drinking Age to Twenty-Five." Kirszner and Mandell 376-77. Print. Kirszner, Laurie G., and Stephan R. Mandell. Practical Argument: a Text and Anthology. Boston: Bedford/St.Martins, 2011. Print. NIAAA. National Institutes of Health, 16 Jan. 2009. Web. 22 May 2011. Sanghavi, Darshak, ed. Slate. The Slate Group, 28 Aug. 2008. Web. 13 May 2011. Schorn, Daniel, ed. The Debate On Lowering The Drinking Age. CBSnews, 22 Feb. 2009. Web. 13 May 2011. Scrivo, Karen Lee. "Drinking On Campus." CQ Researcher (1998): 241-64. Web. 2 May 2011. Solomon, King. "Proverbs." NIV Holy Bible. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 2001. 359-60. Print. Voas, Robert. "There's No Benefit to Lowering the Drinking Age." Kirszner and Mandell 380-81. Print.

Othello and Different Senses of Abnormal :: Othello essays

Othello and Different Senses of Abnormal  Ã‚        Ã‚   As inconsequential as they may initially seem, the various types of abnormalities in William Shakespeare’s tragic drama Othello do impact upon the audience. Let us explore this subject of the deviant in this play.    In the essay â€Å"Wit and Witchcraft: an Approach to Othello† Robert B. Heilman discusses the abnormal attitude and plans of the ancient as manifested in his verbal imagery:    If we take all the lines of one character out of context and consider them as a unit, we have always a useful body of information; but if, when we study Iago’s lines, we find that he consistently describes himself in images of hunting and trapping, we learn not only his plans of action but something of his attitude to occasions, to his victims, and to himself; and beyond that there is fixed for us an image of evil – one of those by which the drama interprets the human situation. (331)    And how about epilepsy? In Act 4 the evil Iago works up Othello into a frenzy regarding the missing kerchief. The resultant illogical, senseless raving by the general is a prelude to an epileptic seizure or entranced state:    Lie with her? lie on her? – We say lie on her when they belie her. – Lie with her! Zounds, that’s fulsome. – Handkerchief – confessions – handkerchief! – To confess, and be hanged for his labor – first to be hanged, and then to confess! I tremble at it. [. . .] (4.1)    Cassio enters right after the general has fallen into the epileptic trance. Iago explains to him:    IAGO. My lord is fall’n into an epilepsy. This is his second fit; he had one yesterday. CASSIO. Rub him about the temples. IAGO. No, forbear. The lethargy must have his quiet course. If not, he foams at mouth, and by and by Breaks out to savage madness. Look, he stirs. Do you withdraw yourself a little while. He will recover straight. (4.1)    Epilepsy on the part of the protagonist is unusual and physically abnormal. But the more serious abnormalities in the play are psychological. Iago is generally recognized as the one character possessing and operating by abnormal psychology. But Lily B. Campbell in Shakespeare’s Tragic Heroes tells of the time when the hero himself approached â€Å"madness†:

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Themes in Tom Jones

Please read: a personal appeal from Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales Read now Close The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search For other uses, see Tom Jones (disambiguation). This article consists almost entirely of a plot summary and should be expanded to provide more balanced coverage that includes real-world context. Please edit the article to focus on discussing the work rather than merely reiterating the plot. (March 2011) Tom Jones TomJonesTitle. pngTitle page from the 1749 edition Author(s) Henry Fielding Original title The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling Country Britain Language English Genre(s) Novel Publisher Andrew Millar Publication date 28 February 1749 Preceded by The Female Husband, or the Surprising History of Mrs Mary alias Mr George Hamilton, who was convicted of having married a young woman of Wells and lived with her as her husband, taken from her own mouth since her confinement – fictionalized pam phlet (1746) Followed by A Journey from this World to the Next (1749)The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, often known simply as Tom Jones, is a comic novel by the English playwright and novelist Henry Fielding. The novel is both a Bildungsroman and Picaresque novel. First published on 28 February 1749, Tom Jones is among the earliest English prose works describable as a novel. [1] The novel, totaling 346,747 words, is divided into 18 smaller books, each preceded by a discursive chapter, often on topics totally unrelated to the book itself.It is dedicated to George Lyttleton. Contents 1 Plot introduction 2 Themes 3 List of Characters 4 Plot summary 4. 1 Book I 4. 2 Book II 4. 3 Book III 4. 4 Book IV 4. 5 Book V 4. 6 Book VI 4. 7 Book VII 4. 8 Book VIII 4. 9 Book IX 4. 10 Book X 4. 11 Book XI 4. 12 Book XII 4. 13 Book XIII 4. 14 Book XIV 4. 15 Book XV 4. 16 Book XVI 4. 17 Book XVII 4. 18 Book XVIII 5 Film, TV, operas, and theatrical adaptations 6 Release details 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links Plot introductionTom Jones is a foundling discovered on the property of a very kind, wealthy landowner, Squire Allworthy, in Somerset in England's West Country. Tom grows into a vigorous and lusty, yet honest and kind-hearted, youth. He develops affection for his neighbour's daughter, Sophia Western. On one hand, their love reflects the romantic comedy genre that was popular in 18th-century Britain. However, Tom's status as a bastard causes Sophia's father and Allworthy to oppose their love; this criticism of class friction in society acted as a biting social commentary.The inclusion of prostitution and sexual promiscuity in the plot was also original for its time, and the foundation for criticism of the book's â€Å"lowness. â€Å"[2] Themes The main theme of the novel is the contrast between Tom Jones’ good nature, flawed but eventually corrected by his love for virtuous Sophia Western, and his half-brother Blifil’s hypocrisy. Secondar y themes include several other examples of virtue (especially that of Squire Allworthy), hypocrisy (especially that of Thwackum) and just villainy (for example Mrs.Western, ensign Northerton), sometimes tempered by repentance (for instance Square, Mrs. Waters nee Jones). Both introductory chapters to each book and interspersed commentary introduce further themes. For instance, introductory chapters dwell extensively on bad writers and critics, quite unrelated to the plot but apologetic to the author and the novel itself; and authorial commentary on several characters show strong opposition to Methodism, calling it fanatical, heretical, and implying association of hypocrites, such as the younger Blifil, with it.As a background, the author interweaves the Forty-Five, and characters bring in events from the attempts of restoration of Romanism as the established religion of England to the Glorious revolution. They even mistake Sophia Western for Jenny Cameron, the supposed lover of Bonn ie Prince Charles. Good-natured characters are often modestly loyalist and Anglican, even Hanoverian, while ill-natured characters (Mrs. Western) or only mistaken ones (Partridge) can be Jacobites or (like Squire Western) just anti-Hanoverians. List of CharactersCaption at bottom: SOPHIA WESTERN: Adorned with all the charms in which Nature can array her, bedecked with beauty, youth, sprightliness, innocence, modesty and tenderness, breathing sweetness from her rosy lips and darting brightness from her sparkling eyes, the lovely Sophia comes! This depicts the heroine of the novel, but shows her in the latest fashions of 1800, rather than in the very different historically-accurate hoopskirts of 1749—it would have been extremely difficult to jump rope in the clothing styles (and high-heeled shoes) of 1749†¦The dishevelment of her clothes in the picture was not meant to contradict the word â€Å"modesty† in the caption, but was supposed to be understood as being the accidental and unintentional effect of her strenuous physical activity. Tom Jones (bastard/ward of Squire Allworthy, eventually revealed his nephew and the son of a long-deceased parson’s son, Mr Summers) Squire Allworthy (a wealthy squire with an estate in Somerset, of irreprochable character and good nature, eventually revealed to having unknowingly been Tom Jones’ uncle) Mrs.Bridget Allworthy-Blifil (Squire Allworthy's sister, Tom Jones’ real mother) Captain Blifil (Captain in the navy and Bridget Allworthy's husband, with Methodist tendencies) Master Blifil (son of Captain Blifil and Bridget, a hypocrite and Tom Jones’ foe) Benjamin Partridge (a teacher, later barber/surgeon, erroneously suspected to be Tom Jones’ father due to the extreme ill-nature of his first wife) Mrs.Jenny Jones-Waters (the Partridges' servant, a very intelligent woman who is used by Mrs Allworthy-Blifil to deflect suspicions on Tom Jones’ maternity from herself) B lack George Seagrim (gamekeeper to Squire Allworthy & later Squire Western, recipient of many benefits from Tom Jones but eventually betrying him in an hour of need) Molly Seagrim (Black George's second daughter, Tom Jones’ first lover and having a bastard, possibly by him) Mr. Thwackum (Reverend/school teacher to Tom and Master Blifil, a hypocrite who hates Tom Jones, favors Master Blifil and conspires with the latter against the former) Mr.Square (Philosopher/school teacher to Tom and Master Blifil, also a hypocrite who hates Jones and favors Blifil, but who refrains from conspiration and eventually repents) Squire Western (Hunter/wealthy squire who owns neighbouring estate to Squire Allworthy, a simpleton who wants to marry his daughter Sophia to Squire Allworthy’s heir, first Blifil and then Jones, against her will, with quite violent, if not physically, means) Sophia Western (the Squire's only daughter, the model of virtue, beauty and all good qualities) Honour (S ophia's maid, egotistical and inconstant to her employer) Mrs.Harriet Fitzpatrick (ward of Mrs Western and wife of Fitzpatrick, an Irishman, abused by him, a cousin and friend of Sophia but lacking her virtue) Miss Western (the Squire's unmarried sister, who wrongly believes herself to ‘know the World‘ both in international and national politics and in social mores, tries to impose Blifil to Sophia but with less violent means than her brother’s) Mr. Dowling (a Lawyer) Lady Bellaston (Tom's lover and a leading figure in London society, who tries to force Sophia into marriage to a Lord by having her raped by him, so she would have Jones to herself) Mr.Nightingale (a young gentleman of leisure, who is saved from ruining his first true love by Jones’ entreaties) Lord Fellamar (a peer and socialite, who unsuccessfully conspires with Lady Bellaston to rape Sophia so as to force her into marriage) Mrs. Miller and her two daughters, Nancy (later Mrs Nightingale, a good-natured girl who is imposed on by Mr Nightingale and would be ruined by him, together with her family, by lack of constancy in virtue) and pre-adolescent Betty Mr. Summer (son of a clergyman and revealed to be the father of Tom Jones) Plot summary The novel's events occupy eighteen books. Book ISquire Allworthy and his sister Bridget are introduced in their wealthy estate in Somerset. Allworthy returns from London after an extended business trip and finds a baby sleeping in his bed. He summons his housekeeper, Mrs Deborah Wilkins, to take care of the child. After searching the nearby village, Mrs Wilkins is told about a young woman called Jenny Jones, servant of a schoolmaster and his wife, as the most likely person to have committed the deed (she is also considered above herself for studying Latin with the schoolmaster). Jenny is brought before them and admits being the baby's mother but refuses to reveal the father's identity.Mr Allworthy mercifully gives her a lecture of mor als and removes Jenny to a place where her reputation will be unknown. Furthermore, he promises his sister to raise the boy, whom he names Thomas, in his household. Two brothers, Dr Blifil and Captain Blifil, regularly visit the Allworthy estate. The doctor introduces the captain to Bridget in hopes of marrying into Allworthy's wealth. The couple fall in love and marry. After the marriage, Captain Blifil begins to show a coldness to his brother, who eventually feels obliged to leave the house for London where he soon dies ‘of a broken heart'.Book II Eight months after celebrating their wedding, Mrs Blifil has a baby boy and Mr Allworthy states that he and Tom will be raised together. The plot then turns to Mrs Partridge, wife of the schoolteacher, who has discovered that Jenny gave birth to a bastard and had mistakenly thought that she had left their service of her own free will. Mrs Partridge immediately suspects her husband and physically assaults him. Captain Blifil informs Mr Allworthy, and Mrs Wilkins is dispatched once more to Little Baddington to ascertain the truth of the matter.Partridge is put on trial before Mr Allworthy and denies paternity. Mr Allworthy, wanting to prove his innocence, sends for Jenny but she cannot be found, having left her place of residence in company with a recruiting officer. Partridge is found guilty and deprived of his annuity by Mr Allworthy. Now that they are poor, Mrs Partridge regrets her accusations, and begs Mrs Blifil to intercede with her brother to restore Mr Partridge's annuity, but he refuses. Mrs Partridge dies soon after and her husband, being deprived of his annuity, his school and his wife, leaves the area.Captain Blifil and his wife start to grow cool towards one another, and the former is found dead from Apoplexy one evening after taking his customary evening stroll prior to dinner. Two doctors arrive to debate the cause of his death and Mrs Blifil, struck with grief, remains bed-ridden for a month. M eanwhile, Mr Allworthy commissions a generous epitaph for the Captain's grave. Book III Tom, who goes from fourteen-years-old to nineteen-years-old by the end of Book III, gets into trouble for killing a partridge on a neighbour's land.In fact he did it at the instigation of Black George, Allworthy's gamekeeper, but he refuses to tell Mr Allworthy who his partner-in-crime was. He is beaten by his master, Mr Thwackum, who resides at the house with another schoolmaster, a philosopher called Mr Square. Later, Blifil reveals that Black George was Tom's partner and Mr Allworthy is pacified by Tom's sense of honour. To make amends, Mr Allworthy gives Tom a young horse but dismisses Black George from his position. Tom sells the horse a year and a half later at a fair.Mr Thwackum finds out and asks Tom what he has done with the money but the latter refuses to tell him. He is about to be beaten when Mr Allworthy enters. Tom confesses that he sold the horse and gave the money to Black George and his family, now in financial straits after being dismissed. Mr Allworthy feels ready to re-employ Black George, but he blots his copybook by poaching a hare on Squire Western's land and this is confirmed by Master Blifil. Tom resolves to have George employed by Mr Western by speaking to the seventeen-year-old Sophia and getting her to persuade her father on the matter.Book IV An incident occurs in which Master Blifil lets go the small bird of Sophia's, given to her by Tom as a young boy. Tom tries to retrieve it but, in doing so, falls into a canal. This incident turns Sophia against Blifil but puts Tom in her favour. Tom speaks to Sophia about George, and she persuades her father to drop any charges and to employ him. Sophia is falling for Tom but his heart is given over to Molly, the second of Black George's daughters and a local beauty. She throws herself at Tom, and he gets her pregnant and then feels obliged to offer her his protection.Molly wears a dress to church — given to her mother by Sophia Western — to show off her beauty. The Somersetshire parishioners are infuriated by her vanity and assault her in the churchyard afterwards. Tom comes to her defence and she is taken home by Square, Blifil and Tom. In the meantime, Sophia has taken pity on Molly and requests her father to ask her to be her maid, but the family council decides to put everything on hold until Tom's intentions become clearer. Squire Western, the local parson, Tom and Sophia are having dinner when the parson informs Western of Molly's condition, at which Tom leaves the dining table.Squire Western immediately jumps to the conclusion that Tom is the father of the bastard, much to Sophia's consternation. Tom returns to his home to find Molly in the arms of a constable and being taken to prison. He bids him free her, and they go to speak to Mr Allworthy where Tom reveals he is the father, saying the guilt is his. However, Mr Allworthy is ultimately forgiving of Tom's sow ing his wild oats: ‘While he was angry, therefore, with the incontinence of Jones, he was no less pleased with the honour and honesty of his self-accusation.He began now to form in his mind the same opinion of this young fellow, which, we hope, our reader may have conceived. And in balancing his faults and his perfections, the latter seemed rather to preponderate. ‘ An incident now occurs in which Tom comes to the aid of Sophia. She goes out hunting with her father and, on her way home, is thrown by her horse. Tom, who is riding close behind, is able to catch her but breaks his left arm in the process. The accident brings them closer and there is the first stirring of love.Tom is seen by a surgeon and ordered into bed and Sophia is bled at her father's orders. Book IV concludes with a conversation between Sophia and Mrs Honour, her maid, who is extolling Tom's virtues to the former and Sophia becomes annoyed by her presumptuousness. Book V Tom thinks about his love for S ophia but knows that her father would not agree to any union; so his thoughts turn back to Molly who he believes is ‘in all the circumstances of wretchedness. ‘ Tom, once he is recovered, makes his way to Molly's home only to discover her in bed with his teacher, Square.Tom still feels some affection for her until he is told by Betty, Molly's older sister, that her innocence had been taken before Tom by Will Barnes, a country gallant. In the meantime, Mr Allworthy has become ill and is told by his doctor that it may be fatal. He summons all his relatives and household servants to his bedside and informs them of his will — Blifil will inherit the estate and Tom will be given a ? 1,000 lump sum and ? 500 per annum (Thwackum and Square will get a ? 1,000 each and the household servants some token payments which displeases Mrs Wilkins, the housekeeper).However, Allworthy recovers; and Tom is so pleased that he gets drunk in his pleasure which displeases Blifil who is in mourning after receiving news that his mother has died. A scuffle ensues, but the two are parted and made to make peace with each other. After this fight, Tom, still drunk, is wandering the gardens thinking about Sophia when Molly makes an appearance. After a quarter of an hour's conversation, the two disappear into the bushes. Blifil and Thwackum likewise take an evening stroll, and Blifil spots Tom with a woman.He informs Thwackum who becomes furious and is determined to punish Tom. Tom guards the entrance to the shrubbery to prevent them seeing who the girl is, and, while Molly escapes, a fight ensues which Tom starts to lose until Squire Western intervenes to make it two against two. Sophia faints at the sight of all the blood, and Tom carries her to a nearby brook, giving her a caress which she does not spurn. Sophia recovers much to her father's delight. Tom returns to Western's house and Blifil and Thwackum to theirs. Book VI Miss Western is the cultured sister of Squire W estern and Sophia's aunt.Although unmarried herself, she recognises the signs of love and notices that Sophia is showing these. She informs her brother that his daughter is in love with Blifil — Miss Western had noted Sophia's behaviour in his presence — and Squire Western informs Allworthy when he visits for dinner. Allworthy says he will give his approval if the young couple agree and consults Blifil who, thinking of Sophia's fortune, agrees to his uncle's request. (No one knows of Sophia's love for Tom. ) Miss Western then speaks to Sophia to reveal her amour, and is enraged when she finds out it is not Blifil but Tom.With her aunt agreeing to keep the whole thing a secret, Mr Western tells Sophia about his intentions and she is obliged to meet Blifil that afternoon. Sophia is determined to go through with the meeting, even though she hates and despises Blifil. After a difficult meeting, in which Blifil thinks he has won her heart, he is accosted by Squire Western b efore he leaves and Blifil announces that he is satisfied with Sophia, much to the father's delight. However, once he is gone, Sophia reveals her true feelings for Blifil, but he ignores her pleadings and grows enraged.Tom is in the house and is asked by Western to go to Sophia to encourage her to marry Blifil. The two young lovers are in agony and reveal they can never part from each other as they take each other's hands. However, whilst they have been conversing, Miss Western has revealed all to the Squire, who threatens to assault Jones but is only prevented from doing so by the parson. Mr Western then visits his neighbour Allworthy and informs him of the situation in heated tones. After his departure, Mr Allworthy asks Blifil if he still wants to proceed with the marriage, and the latter replies in the affirmative, mainly to spite Tom.Blifil also takes the opportunity to inform his uncle about the bust up in the shrubbery, saying that Tom assaulted his tutor, Thwackum. Allworthy summons Tom before him to plead his case, but Tom is sunk too low from hearing the news about Sophia to make a robust defence. As such, he is commanded by his foster father to leave the house immediately after being given a sum of ? 500. Tom walks about a mile and, thinking beside a little brook, is resolved to quit Sophia rather than bring her to ruin.He pens a letter from a neighbouring house but discovers, in searching his pockets for his wax, that he has lost his wallet and returns to the brook to look for it. Here he meets George and together they look for it although George has already picked it up on coming to the same spot earlier. Tom asks him to deliver his letter for Sophia to Mrs Honour and, on doing so, George receives one back for Tom. In it, Sophia professes her affection for him but also warns him to steer clear of her father, ‘As you know his temper, I beg you will, for my sake, avoid him. ‘Sophia is locked up in her room by her father but Honour manage s to give her Tom's letter. She also tells her that the squire ‘stripped him half naked and turned him out of doors! ‘. Sophia gives her all the money she has — amounting to a purse of sixteen guineas — telling her to give it to Tom. Honour gives the money to Black George, who is tempted to steal it like the ? 500 earlier — but the danger of the theft being discovered outweighs his greed, and he delivers the money to Jones. The Book ends with the return of Miss Western to the house and her being informed of Sophia's captivity.She rebukes her brother and sets Sophia free. Book VII Tom receives a note from Blifil along with his effects, informing him that his uncle requires him to immediately quit the neighbourhood. Sophia speaks to her aunt who tries to persuade her of the advantages of marrying Blifil. However, Mr Western overhears their conversation and storms into the room. He and his sister get into a furious argument over his behaviour, and she t hreatens to quit the house. However, on the sound advice of Sophia, she is recalled by Mr Western who makes efforts to pacify her.Having become reconciled, both are determined to have Sophia married as quickly as possible, and Blifil makes a second visit. Mr Allworthy is satisfied by what his nephew and Western tell him concerning Sophia and the marriage treaty is set two days hence. Sophia is now fixed on avoiding the marriage and in a conversation with Honour says she will quit the house and stay with a lady of quality in London who is her close acquaintance. Honour agrees to accompany her and agrees to get herself discharged so that their clothes can be packed for the journey without any undue suspicion.Honour deliberately provokes the chambermaid of Miss Western by abusing her mistress, and the lady herself is told of their conversation and vows to have Honour discharged for her impudence. There follows a dispute between Mr Western and his sister over the legality of dismissing Honour, but in the end the latter has the satisfaction of seeing Honour turned away. Sophia is conscience-stricken about her infidelity to her relations, but her love for Tom prevails. Tom is on the road to Bristol, being determined to take to sea. However, his guide gets lost, and they take shelter at a public house on the advice of a Quaker.The Quaker gets into a conversation with Tom, even though the latter wants to be alone, telling him about his own misfortune of having his daughter run off with a penniless man of low birth — vowing he will never see them again, and Tom pushes him out of the room. A company of soldiers enter the ale-house as Tom is sleeping on a chair, and, getting into a dispute over who will pay for the beer, Tom agrees to cover the bill. He strikes up a conversation with the sergeant who tells him they are marching against the Roman Catholic rebels who had invaded England, expecting to be commanded by the glorious Duke of Cumberland.Tom, being â€Å" a hearty well-wisher to the glorious cause of liberty and of the Protestant religion†, agrees to join them as a volunteer. The soldiers march off, and that evening Tom is introduced to the lieutenant, a man who is sixty years of age. Looking like a gentleman, he is invited to dinner with the small company of officers. Tom gets into an argument with Ensign Northerton, who then proceeds to abuse the good name of Sophia after Tom has proposed a toast to her. Tom rebukes him, saying ‘you are one of the most impudent scoundrels on earth,' and Northerton responds by throwing a bottle at Tom's head which poleaxes him.The lieutenant proceeds to put Northerton under close arrest, and a surgeon is called to stem the bleeding. Tom is put to bed and the lieutenant visits him, promising he will get his satisfaction against his adversary. Later that night, Tom, who is feeling much better, wakes the sergeant and purchases a sword from him before making his way to Northerton's room. He is shot at by the guard, who thinks he is a ghost (his coat is bloodied as is the bandage around his head) and then faints. However, the bird has flown (with the connivance of the landlady), and Tom returns to his room whilst the lieutenant has the sentinel put under arrest.Tom tells the lieutenant that he is to blame for the disturbance, and the latter agrees to drop the charge against the soldier. Book VIII The landlady visits Tom after the soldiers have left and is courteous to him until he shows her his purse which has very little in it. He then dismisses the doctor, who insists on bleeding him so he can get a decent fee,and finally is able to get up and dressed. He calls for a barber to shave him after a dinner of ‘buttock [beef] and carrot' and Little Benjamin turns out to be Mr Partridge, the schoolmaster.Tom reveals his whole story to him, and Partridge agrees to accompany him on his journey, secretly hoping that he can convince Tom to return to Allworthy (whom he is c onvinced is Tom's real father) so that he can get back into Allworthy's favour once more. They make their way on foot to Gloucester and stay at the Bell. However, there is a pettifogger (a lawyer of low status, who engages in mean practices) present who besmirches Tom's name to the landlady, Mrs Whitefield, after Tom has left their company. With Tom's name now mud, the landlady's welcome grows cold, and he is resolved to quit the house the same evening.They make their way on foot on a freezing night toward some hills that they have been informed lie not far from Worcester. Tom begs his companion to leave him, telling him he is resolved to die ‘a glorious death in the service of my king and country,' but the latter refuses to leave him. Partridge eventually sees the glimmer of a light, and they make their way to an isolated house. Whilst warming themselves by the fire and conversing with the housekeeper, the owner returns and is set upon by two robbers. Tom rushes outside with a broadsword and drives them off and helps the old gentleman into the house.This gentleman, called the Man of the Hill, then recounts his life story to Tom and Partridge. A prudent and industrious student, he fell into bad company at Oxford and had to flee to London with his mistress to escape being expelled. Here, both destitute, the woman betrays him to one of her former lovers at Oxford and he is thrown into gaol, where he reflects on his sinful life. He is eventually released but, still poor, falls in with an old Oxford acquaintance, Watson, who introduces him to his gambling crowd.He lives precariously for the next two years pursuing this profession. However, he is re-united with his father, who has come to London to look for him and has been assaulted by thieves. They are re-united by chance as the son, who is walking down the same street, comes to his father's aid after the affray. He returns with his father to Somersetshire, and spends the next four years in contemplation of the works of Aristotle and Plato, and of God. His father dies, and he, being the younger son, finds it difficult to live with his brother who lives entirely for sport.He is sent to Bath by his physician to take the waters and manages to save a man from committing suicide by drowning — the very same Watson, his friend from London. Both are then caught up in Bonnie Prince Charlie's rebellion, and, when captured, the stranger tells Tom and Partridge that he was denounced by Watson. However, he manages to escape his captors and ends up living at the present house on an annuity, an exile from the world of humanity. The Book ends with the old man and Tom taking a walk together to enjoy the sight of some fine prospects in the early hours of the day. Book IXWhilst observing the view, they hear a woman screaming, and Tom rushes down the hill to help. He comes upon a woman, half-naked, being throttled by a man whom Tom knocks down. It is Ensign Northerton. Tom restrains his hands with a garter and goes back to the Man of the Hill for advice. Tom is told to take her to Upton, the nearest town. When Tom returns to the woman, Northerton has made his escape on foot, and Tom and the lady make their way to the town. On the way, Tom is sneaking peeps at her uncovered breasts at which he has gazed earlier. They eventually find an inn, and Tom instructs the lady to wait whilst he fetches her some clothes.The landlady and landlord think that something immoral is taking place and assault Tom — who is only saved from a beating by the arrival of Partridge. Susan, the hefty chambermaid joins in, and it is only the arrival of a young lady and maid that ends the battle. A sergeant arrives with his men and recognises the woman to be Mrs Waters, his Captain's wife, and the inn's hosts make their apologies and peace is restored around a bowl of liquor. Mrs Waters then retires with Tom upstairs and proceeds to make a pass at him, finding her savior extremely attractive.They end up in bed together. In the meantime, an argument takes place downstairs when the landlord abuses officers of rank in the army. The sergeant takes offense and offers to fight ‘the best man of you all for twenty pound' and the coachman of the young lady takes him on, saying he is as good as any man in the army, and offers to box for a guinea. He is well mauled by the sergeant and so unable to convey the young lady on her journey. An account is then given of how Mrs Waters ended up in ‘the distressful situation' from which Jones rescued her.Her husband, having accompanied her as far as Worcester, had proceeded onwards, and Northerton had joined her for an assignation. He tells her of the incident with Jones, and they decide to make for Hereford, then a Welsh seaport so that he can make his escape abroad. Mrs Waters has ? 90 and her jewelry to finance their journey. However, it was in the wood at the foot of Mazard Hill that Northerton tried to kill her but she, being â €˜not of the weakest order of females,' was able to fend him off until Tom came to her rescue. Book X An Irishman arrives at the Upton inn, a Mr Fitzpatrick, who is desperately looking for his wife.He speaks to Susan, the chambermaid, who shows him up to Mrs Water's room. He sees Tom and then a lot of women's clothes strewed around the room, and he and Tom proceed to blows until Mrs Waters cries out ‘murder! robbery! and more frequently rape'. An Irishman staying in the room next door now enters the bedroom, a Mr Maclachlan, who lets his friend know that he has the wrong woman. Fitzpatrick apologises to Mrs Waters but says he will have his blood in the morning. Mrs Waters screams rape again to divert attention away from her and Tom being in the same room together, and all the men depart.Two young women in riding habits now arrive at the inn and one of them is immediately recognised as being a lady of quality. The lady retires to bed, and the maid, Mrs Honour, returns downst airs and demands food. She falls into conversation with Mr Partridge and learns that Tom is staying in the same inn. She tells Sophia that Tom is in the house and, returning downstairs, finds out from Partridge that Tom is with a woman and cannot be woken. Honour goes back upstairs and Sophia decides to leave her muff (with her name written on it for Tom to let him know she was there) and departs.Tom finds the muff and determines to give chase to Sophia. Western now arrives with some of his followers at the inn. The narrator mentions here that if he had come two hours earlier he would not only have found Sophia but also his niece — for such was the wife of Mr Fitzpatrick, who had run away with her five years before, out of the custody of Mrs Western. In fact, Mrs Fitzpatrick had heard the voice of her husband and paid the landlady for horses to make her escape at the same time as Sophia's departure. Western see Jones with Sophia's muff in his hands and tries to assault him bu t is restrained.Fitzpatrick, whom it turns out is married to the niece of Mrs Western, decides to help his uncle by showing him what he believes is Sophia's room, which turns out to be Mrs Waters'. A magistrate in the inn hears the case but refuses to convict Tom; and Western, in a fury, departs in pursuit of his daughter. The plot now reverts back to when Sophia left her father's house. Sophia decides to take a zigzag route before hitting the London road to avoid her father. It turns out that their guide is the same as who conducted Tom, and Sophia bribes him to take them on the same route along the Bristol road.They spend a night with Mrs Whitefield in Gloucester before ending up at the Upton inn. Book XI Sophia, making her way past the Severn, is joined by another young lady, her maid (Abigail Honour, Mrs Honour's sister) and a guide. As it is night-time, they do not speak much and can hardly see each other. However, in daylight they recognise one another — the other lady is Harriet, Sophia's cousin and another niece of Mrs Western. They determine to wait until they arrive at an inn before they tell each other their stories.Once at the inn, Sophia and Harriet share a bed as do the two maids, everyone being exhausted from their journey, and the landlord and his wife come to the conclusion that they are supporters of the rebel Charles Stuart, fleeing the Duke of Cumberland, and that Sophia is Jenny Cameron herself (the daughter of a highland supporter of Charles). Once they have rested, Mrs Fitzpatrick recounts her story to Sophia. She met Fitzpatrick whilst staying with her aunt, Mrs Western, in Bath. He paid court to her aunt, but was also very kind to herself, until he eventually professed his love for her.The aunt left Bath, and she married Fitzpatrick. However, he says they will have to return to his estate in Ireland which she is very reluctant to do, and by accident finds a debtor's letter from his tailor in which he recalls Fitzpatrick saying h e would soon marry either the aunt or the niece which would settle his debts, preferring the niece as he would have quicker access to the money. Harriet reveals all to her husband but he fobs her off, and they travel to Ireland. His house is very dismal and he proves the opposite of the gallant in Bath; he is aggressive and boorish in his behaviour to her.Eventually, he imprisons her in her bedroom, but, whilst on a three month trip to England, she is able to make her escape with the help of a neighbouring aristocrat. She intended to make for Bath to plead with her aunt, and this is how she ran into Sophia. There is also an interlude when Mrs Honour assaults the landlord when she finds out that he thinks Sophia is Jenny Cameron. It happens that the same Irish peer that helped Harriet is staying at the inn, on his way to London. He pays them a call and offers them a ride in his coach-and-six to London.Whilst preparing herself, Sophia discovers that she has lost a ? 100 note which her father had given her, believing it fell out of her pocket. The party arrive in London but Sophia is desirous of looking up her acquaintance, having suspicions that Harriet intends to make for Bath in order to have an alliance with the Irish nobleman. She makes her farewell, repeating their aunt's maxim to Harriet that ‘whenever the matrimonial alliance is broke, and war declared between husband and wife, she can hardly make a disadvantageous peace for herself on any conditions' ut Mrs Fitzpatrick contemptuously dismisses this advice. Sophia then repairs to the house of Lady Bellaston who promises she will do everything in her power to protect her. Book XII Squire Western is in pursuit of his daughter but gets waylaid by a hunt and ends up returning home. Tom and Partridge come across a lame fellow in rags to whom Tom gives a shilling. The beggar offers Tom something he has found, and it turns out to be Sophia's pocket book with the ? 100 note tucked inside.Tom gives the man a guinea, promising more later, and they leave him very discontented. They eventually come to an ale-house, and Partridge is keen to see the puppet-show which is playing the Provoked Husband. The landlady berates her chambermaid for having a sexual dalliance with Merry Andrew, the youth who beats the drum to announce the shows. Tom retires to bed but is awoken by the sound of the master of the puppet-show beating his Merry Andrew. Tom intervenes, and the Merry Andrew mentions the puppet master trying to rob a lady in a fine riding habit the day before.Tom realizes this was Sophia and instructs the youth to show him the spot where this would have happened. He and Partridge then procure horses from the inn and also recognise the same boy who guided Sophia to the last inn. Accepting some money, he is persuaded to guide them to the same place; and they try to get post-horses at the same inn, but there are none to be had. At the same time, Tom is saluted by Mr Dowling, the lawyer with who m Tom had dined at Gloucester, and he and Partridge prevail on Tom to spend the night at the inn.Jones and Dowling share a bottle of wine, and Tom informs him of how Blifil has tried to ruin him, ‘I saw the selfishness in him long ago which I despised; but it is lately, very lately, that I have found him capable of the basest and blackest designs. ‘ Tom also assures the attorney of his deepest respect for Mr Allworthy, and not his money. Tom then takes leave of Dowling and sets forth for Coventry. He and Partridge make their way but are caught in a storm and forced to take shelter in a barn, in which a gypsy wedding feast is taking place. They are made welcome by the King of the Gypsies.Jones and Partridge then travel post in pursuit of Sophia, ending up at St Albans where they just miss Sophia. As they make their way into London, they meet a fellow traveler on horseback who, on hearing that Tom has ? 100, attempts to hold them up but is overcome by Tom. The highwayman c onfesses that it was his first robbery, and he only did it out of great need. Tom takes pity on him and gives him two guineas, and the man is overcome by his generosity. Book XIII Jones and Partridge arrive in London; but, being unfamiliar with its streets, retire to the Bull and Gate in Holborn.Tom then finds out where the lord's residence is. After bribing a footman, Tom is admitted into the presence of Mrs Fitzpatrick. She, thinking that he is the suitor Sophia is trying to avoid, dissembles, and Tom leaves the house but stands watch nearby. Mrs Fitzpatrick communicates her suspicions to her maid, Abigail, and is informed that the man was Jones himself. Tom is admitted once more to see Mrs Fitzpatrick, and Lady Bellaston joins them — as does the noble lord, who ignores Tom. Mrs Fitzpatrick designs to get rid of Tom.He then thinks about the gentlewoman at whose house Mr Allworthy is accustomed to lodge when in town and dispatches Partridge to the house where he is able to s ecure two rooms. The landlady is Mrs Miller, and she has two daughters: Nancy is seventeen and Betty ten. There is a young gentleman lodger, a Mr Nightingale, who gets into a fight with his footman. Tom intervenes to save him from being throttled, and the two become friends over a shared bottle of wine. Tom then receives a bundle inside which is a domino, a mask and a masquerade ticket and a card signed the ‘queen of the fairies'.He is determined to go to the masque, thinking that he might find Sophia there, and Nightingale lends him some of his clothes and offers to accompany him. Tom talks to a variety of women who look or sound like Sophia, until he meets a lady in a domino who talks to him about Sophia. Afterwards, she quits the masquerade to return home, forbidding Tom to follow her. He, however, ignores her warning and follows her chair to a street near Hanover Square and walks in after her, suspecting her to be Mrs Fitzpatrick. The woman turns out to be Lady Bellaston, and they sleep together.Lady Bellaston promises Tom she will try to find out Sophia's whereabouts. Returning to his lodgings, Mrs Miller tells the household about a cousin of hers whose family is living in extreme poverty. Tom, after hearing her narrative, gives her his purse containing ? 50, asking her to use it for the poor people, and she joyfully takes ten guineas. Tom tries to find out from Lady Bellaston where Sophia is but cannot (the latter now seeing Sophia as a rival in love). He is also in a very difficult position as she is now supporting him financially.He receives a note from her asking for a meeting at her house, having arranged for Sophia, Mrs Honour and her own maid, Mrs Etoff, to see a play together. Tom meets Mrs Miller's cousin who turns out to be the highwayman who tried to rob him, and the man is effusive in his thanks for Tom's kindness to his family who are now all restored to health. Tom goes to Lady Bellaston's house, but she is not there. He is waiting in the drawing-room when Sophia enters, having left the play early in distaste under the protection of a young gentleman.Both are as surprised as each other. After reprimanding him for bandying her name around in inns, with Tom protesting it was Partridge, not he, she starts crying; and Tom kisses away her tears. Lady Bellaston enters, and Sophia makes the pretence that Tom has only come to return her pocket-book and the banknote. Tom takes the opportunity to leave, asking Lady Bellaston for permission to pay another visit to which she politely consents. The Book concludes with Sophia attempting to ward off her cousin's questions about the young gentleman. Book XIVLady Bellaston pays a surprise visit to Tom's apartments. However, they are interrupted by the arrival of Mrs Honour bearing a letter for Tom from Sophia, and Lady Bellaston is forced to hide behind a curtain. Honour assures Tom of her mistress' regard, and, after she has left, Lady Bellaston emerges from her place of conceal ment as, ‘streams of fire darted from her eyes, and well indeed they might, for her heart was all in a flame. ‘ However, Tom makes his peace with her and they agree that future visits to her house will appear as though they are for Sophia's sake, Bellaston being convinced that Sophia possessed the first place in Jones's affections† and â€Å"†¦ she submitted at last to bear the second place. † Mrs Miller talks to Tom about the house getting a reputation of one of ill-fame. Tom assures her that he will change his place of lodgings. Nightingale tells him that he too has resolved to quit the house, although Tom reminds him that Nancy, the eldest daughter, is in love with him; but Nightingale is not unduly concerned, liking to boast about his skill at gaining women, much to Tom's dismay.Nightingale, however, quits the house, and Mrs Miller is distraught, revealing to Tom that Nancy is with child by him. All he has left her is a note stating that he cannot m arry her as his father has insisted on his paying his addresses to a young lady of fortune whom he has chosen for him as a wife. Jones promises to go and talk to Nightingale and attempts to persuade him to change his mind. During the conversation, he resolves to speak to Nightingale's father and inform him that Nightingale is already married to Ms Miller, a proposal to which the son readily assents.A farcical conversation takes place in a coffee house with Tom speaking about Nancy Miller whereas the father presumes he is talking about Miss Harris, and Tom saying he is already married. Old Mr Nightingale's brother then makes an appearance and also helps to persuade his brother against a union with Miss Harris, for, as he is her neighbour, he knows her to be â€Å"very tall, very thin, very ugly, very affected, very silly, and very ill-natured. † Jones finally agrees to conduct the uncle to his nephew in Mrs Miller's house.Mrs Miller informs Jones that all matters are settled b etween Nightingale and Nancy and that they are to be married the next day. The uncle, however, takes his nephew upstairs and, on finding out that he is not married, tells him to call off the wedding as it is both foolish and preposterous. They return downstairs and the others feel that something is amiss, especially Tom as the uncle departs with Nightingale. However, Tom receives a visit from Mrs Honour who informs him she has dreadful news regarding her mistress. Book XVLady Bellaston is now determined to get Sophia out of the way. The young nobleman who escorted Sophia from the play, Lord Fellamar, approaches Lady Bellaston and declares his love for Sophia, and she says she will promote his cause with her father, although pointing out that he has a rival for her affection — ‘a beggar, a bastard, a foundling, a fellow in meaner circumstances than one of your lordship's own footmen. ‘ She persuades an acquaintance, Tom Edwards, to announce in front of Sophia that Jones has been killed in a duel, and Sophia retires to her room in dismay.Bellaston and Fellamar then hatch a plan for the latter to ravish Sophia the next evening whilst the servants are out of the house and whilst Lady Bellaston is in an apartment distant from the scene. Despite having scruples, Fellamar falls in with her scheme and throws himself at Sophia; but the rape is interrupted by the arrival of Squire Western and his parson. The lord believes the father will accept him as his future son-in-law but is brushed aside by Western who removes Sophia to his own lodgings. Lady Bellaston is not too perturbed by the failure of her scheme with Fellamar, since at least Sophia is now out of the way.The plot now reverts back to how the Squire discovered his daughter's whereabouts. Mrs Fitzpatrick, hoping to reconcile her aunt and uncle, sent a letter to Mrs Western informing them of Sophia's present location. The lady passes the letter to her brother, and he is resolved to go to London with his sister following a day later. Honour, as mentioned earlier, comes to see Tom with the bad news. Whilst she is speaking to him, Lady Bellaston's arrival is announced, and Mrs Honour this time is forced to hide. Lady Bellaston comments on Jones' attractiveness, but he cannot reply in kind as Honour is present in the room.However, his embarrassment is ended when Mr Nightingale stumbles drunk into the room and Lady Bellaston is forced to share the hiding place with Honour. The Lady, after assuring the maid of her friendship in order to stop her repeating what she has heard, takes her leave in a fury. Mrs Honour also berates Tom for his infidelity to her mistress, but he eventually manages to calm her down. Nancy and Nightingale are married at Doctors' Commons and Tom then receives three letters from Lady Bellaston requesting his presence at her home. Nightingale confronts Tom and tells him about her reputation around town.Tom also reveals his deep love for Sophia whom he now i dolizes. Jones and Nightingale (‘his privy council') proceed to hatch their own plan so that he can be rid of Bellaston. Nightingale knows that she turned away a former young man when he proposed marriage to her, and he suggests that Tom does the same. The latter is reluctant in case she agrees to his proposal, but Nightingale believes the young man in question — angered by the ill offices she had done him since — would show Tom her letters, the knowledge of which he could use to break off the affair.Tom writes a letter, and Lady Bellaston writes back banishing him from her home. Mrs Miller receives notice from Mr Allworthy that he is coming to London, and Tom, Mr and Mrs Nightingale remove to new apartments. Tom, having dispatched Mrs Honour to give him more news about Sophia's state, receives a letter from her saying she now has a position with Lady Bellaston and can tell him nothing. A few days later Mr Partridge bumps into Black George and, over a few pots of beer, learns that he is working for Squire Western and can convey letters to Sophia in order to help Tom. Tom sits down to write his epistle.Book XVI The scene shifts to Squire Western's lodgings in Piccadilly, recommended by the landlord at the Hercules Pillars at Hyde Park Corner, where Sophia is locked in her room. An officer asks to be presented and informs the Squire and parson he has come on behalf of Lord Fellamar who wants to visit his daughter on the footing of a lover, but Western throws him out. Sophia, hearing the noise below her, starts screaming and her father enters her room, asking her to fulfill his demands but she once more refuses and her father storms out, once more ignoring her pleas and tears.However, Black George is able to slip Sophia Tom's letter, hidden inside a pullet, and she muses over it. Mrs Western now arrives and is highly indignant over Sophia's imprisonment. She demands that she be given complete control over the niece and, with the support of the parson, the Squire finally agrees and Mrs Western conducts her to her own more salubrious lodgings. Tom now receives a letter from Sophia, written from her aunt's lodgings and begging him to give her up in order that he may be reconciled to Mr Allworthy, and enclosing the ? 100 banknote as she knows Tom requires money.The plot now switches back to the past when Blifil was informed by Western about his daughter's flight to London. Blifil's case that Sophia loves him is now more uncertain. Allworthy agrees to Blifil's insistent demands that he accompany him to London but warns his nephew, I will never give my consent to any absolute force being put on her inclinations, nor shall you ever have her unless she can be brought freely of compliance. Once in London, Squire Western and Blifil barge into his sister's house, and she is furious at the incivility of their entrance.Sophia, who turns pale at the sight of Blifil, is allowed to retire to her room whilst her aunt castigates Squire We stern for his rude country manners — and at the same time suggests to Blifil that perhaps he can visit Sophia again in the afternoon. Blifil now quite rightly, as the narrator points out, suspects that Mrs Western may have turned against his cause. Lady Bellaston sees Lord Fellamar and advises him to have Jones somehow pressed and sent on board a ship. She then meets Mrs Western (they are cousins), and the former tells the latter about Lord Fellamar's attachment to Sophia.It is agreed they will pursue his case. Mrs Western refers to Blifil as ‘a hideous kind of fellow' with nothing but fortune to recommend him. Jones pays a visit to Mrs Fitzpatrick, who encourages him to make a sham address to Mrs Western (just as Fitzpatrick did) in order to win Sophia; but he outrightly declines the undertaking, just as he does the advances now Mrs Fitzpatrick now makes towards him. Fitzpatrick has now come up to London from Bath and sees Jones coming out of his wife's house. Having s uspicions about Jones and Mrs Fitzpatrick, he draws his sword, but Jones manages to stab him with his.He ‘†¦ sheathed one half of his sword in the body of the said gentleman' — but is arrested by the gang employed by Lord Fellamar and taken before a magistrate who commits him to Gatehouse. Here, he receives a letter from Sophia stating she has seen his letter with his proposal of marriage to Bellaston. Book XVII Mr Allworthy is informed by Mrs Miller of how kind-hearted Tom has been towards her and her family. However, Blifil informs his uncle that Tom has killed a man, but the conversation is interrupted by the entrance of Mr Western who complains to his neighbour about Lord Fellamar.Mr Allworthy, commenting on Sophia's good character, tells Western he will not have Sophia forced into a marriage. After finding out the true inclinations of Sophia towards Blifil, Mr Allworthy informs Western that the marriage will not proceed. Mrs Western now tries to persuade Sophi a to marry Lord Fellamar, but she tells her aunt how he tried to force himself on her in Lady Bellaston's house. Thus a truce is called, and her aunt is in a better temper. Mrs Miller visits Sophia and tells her how well Tom has behaved towards her penniless cousin, Mr Anderson.She manages to make Sophia read his letter, but it does not change her attitude towards him. Fellamar pays a visit to Sophia, but she rejects his love and is berated by her aunt after the lord has left for receiving letters from Tom (she has learnt this from Mrs Miller). The action now switches to Tom in prison. Nightingale visits him and informs him that the only witnesses to the fight were from a man-of-war crew lying at Deptford; and they said that Tom had struck the first blow. Mrs Waters hen visits Tom telling him to cheer up and giving him the good news that Fitzpatrick is not dead and is likely to recover. Having lived with Fitzpatrick as his wife in Bath, she is also doing so in London so she knows ex actly what is happening. Book XVIII Partridge now visits Tom and, seeing Mrs Waters's face for the first time, informs Tom that he has been a-bed with his own mother, that Mrs. Waters and Jenny Jones are one and the same. Whilst he is dispatched by Tom to find her, Tom receives a letter from her that she has a matter of high importance to communicate to him.Mrs Miller and Jack Nightingale speak to Mr Allworthy about Tom's merits, and the latter says he might start to think better of the young gentleman. Mr Allworthy then receives a letter from Mr Square stating that he is dying and saying that Tom was innocent and that this young man hath the noblest generosity of heart, the most perfect capacity for friendship, the highest integrity, and indeed every virtue which can ennoble a man. Mr Partridge is now summoned before Mr Allworthy's presence, and he tells him his history since the time he lost his school.He also tells him about Tom's sleeping with his mother, at which Allworthy expr esses shock, but Mrs Waters enters the room desiring to speak with him. She states that Partridge was not the father of the child but a young man named Summer, the son of a clergyman who was a great friend of Allworthy's. Summer came to reside at Allworthy's house after completing his studies and died shortly afterwards. Allworthy's sister became pregnant by him and bore the child found between the sheets in his bed.It turns out that Miss Bridget went to the house of Mrs Waters' mother, and it was arranged that mother and daughter would attend her (with Mrs Wilkins being sent to Dorsetshire to be out of the way). Having given birth, Mrs Waters was instructed to take the child to Allworthy's bed. Once her story is complete, Mr Allworthy recollects that his sister had a liking for Summer but that she had expressed the highest disdain for his unkind suspicion — so he had let the matter drop. Mrs Waters then mentions to Mr Allworthy that she had been visited by a entleman who, ta king her for Fitzpatrick's wife, informed her she would be financially assisted by a worthy gentleman if she wanted to prosecute Jones. She found out from Mr Partridge that the man's name was Dowling. Mr Western now appears, berating that fact that a lord now wants to marry Sophia; and Allworthy says he will try to speak with her once more. Mrs Waters then says she was ruined ‘by a very deep scheme of villainy' which drove her into the arms of Captain Waters, whom she lived with as a wife for many years even though they remained unmarried.Dowling then appears, and Mr Allworthy confronts him in the presence of Mrs Waters. He learns the truth that it was Blifil who sent him to talk to her. Dowling also reveals that he was given a letter by Blifil's mother on her deathbed, and he also was instructed by her to tell Allworthy that Jones was his nephew. However, as Allworthy had been ill at the time, he delivered the letter into Blifil's hands who said he would convey it to Allworth y. Allworthy leaves to have his interview with Sophia at Western's house.After assuring her that she will not have to marry Blifil owing to his villainy, he proposes to have another young man visit her. Sophia is bemused but, on being informed that it is Jones, refuses outright to meet him, saying it would be as disagreeable as a meeting with Blifil. Squire Western bursts into the room and, on being informed by Allworthy that Tom is his nephew, now becomes as eager for Sophia to marry Jones as he was about Blifil. Allworthy returns to his lodgings and his reunion with Tom now takes place.To compound his joy, Tom is also informed by Mrs Miller that, after speaking with her son, she has told Sophia all about the Bellaston letter and that Tom had also refused a proposal of marriage from a pretty widow called Hunt (which occurs earlier in the novel). Tom informs Mr Allworthy that his liberty had been procured by two noble lords, One of these was Lord Fellamar who, on finding out from Fi tzpatrick that he took all the blame and that Tom was the nephew to a gentleman of great fortune, went with the Irish peer to obtain Tom's release.Mrs Miller asks Allworthy about Blifil, and the latter replies that I cannot be easy while such a villain is in my house. Tom pleads with him to be lenient, but Allworthy sends him to Blifil's room. Tom tells him he has to leave but that he will also do everything in his powers to help his younger brother, â€Å"and would leave nothing unattempted to effectuate a reconciliation with his uncle. † Jones, now fully kitted-out as a young gentleman of wealth, then accompanies his uncle to Mr Western's house.Sophia is also decked out in all her finery, and the two are left alone by the uncle and father and are eventually reconciled when Tom kisses her on her dear lips. Western once more bursts into the room, and Sophia says she will be obedient to her father by agreeing to marry Tom. The pair are privately married the next day in the cha pel at Doctors' Commons but a joint wedding feast is held afterwards at Mrs Miller's house with Nightingale and his bride, Nancy (who have been reconciled with old Mr Nightingale through the mediation of Mr Allworthy). So, the story reaches its conclusion.The narrator informs his reader of the fate of his characters. Allworthy refused to see Blifil; but he settled an annual income of ? 200 on his nephew. The latter moved to one of the northern counties, hoping to purchase a seat in the next parliament and turning Methodist in the hope of ensnaring a rich wife. Mrs Fitzpatrick divorces her husband and maintains a close friendship with the Irish peer who aided her escape from Ireland. Mr Nightingale and his wife purchase an estate in the neighbourhood of Jones. Mrs Waters receives a ? 60 annual pension from Allworthy and marries Western's Parson Supple.Partridge sets up a school and a marriage to Molly Seagrim is on the cards. Mr Western moved out of his country seat into a smaller ho use, liking to play with his granddaughter and grandson, while Tom and Sophia love Mr Allworthy as a father. And, as for Tom: â€Å"Whatever in the nature of Jones had a tendency to vice, has been corrected by continual conversation with this good man, and by his union with the lovely and virtuous Sophia. He hath also, by reflection on his past follies, acquired a discretion and prudence very uncommon in one of his lively parts. † Film, TV, operas, and theatrical adaptations 963 saw the release of Tom Jones, a film directed by Tony Richardson and starring Albert Finney as Tom. The book was also three times used as the basis for an opera, by Francois-Andre Philidor in 1765 (see Philidor's opera), by Edward German in 1907 (see German's opera), and by Stephen Oliver in 1975. A BBC adaptation was broadcast in 1997 with Max Beesley in the title role, dramatised by Simon Burke. Release details Fielding (28 February 1749) (First ed. ), UK: A Millar. ————à ¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€ (1809) (Two volumes hardback ed. ), St. Paul's Church Yard, London, ENG, UK: J Walker, Paternoster Row and J Harris. ———————— (1950) (hardback ed. , UK: Modern Library. ———————— (February 1973) (hardback ed. ), UK: William Collins, ISBN 978-0-00-423529-5. ———————— (1975) (paperback ed. ), USA: Wesleyan University Press, ISBN 978-0-8195-6048-3. ———————— (May 1992) (paperback ed. ), UK: Wordsworth Editions, ISBN 978-1-85326-021-6. ———————— (2 February 1998) (paperback ed. ), USA: Phoenix Press, ISBN 978-0-460-87833-3. ———————— (30 September 2002), Modern Library (paperback ed. ), USA: Random House, ISBN 978-0-8129-6607-7. à ¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€Ã¢â‚¬â€ (2004), Classics (paperback ed. ), USA: Barnes & Noble, ISBN 1-59308-070-0. ———————— (28 April 2005) (paperback ed. , UK: Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-043622-8. See also Portal icon Novels portal Illegitimacy in fiction Notes ^ Yardley, Jonathan (9 December 2003). â€Å"‘Tom Jones,' as Fresh as Ever†. The Washington Post: p. C1. Retrieved 2006-12-31. ^ Fielding, H (1950), â€Å"Introduction†, The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, New York: Modern Library, p. viii. References Tom Jones, Wordsworth Classics, Introduction and Notes Doreen Roberts, Canterbury: Rutherford College, University of Kent, 1999 [1992], ISBN 1-85326-021-5. Words, Words, Words: From the Beginnings to the Eighteenth Century, La Spiga languages, 2003. Battestin, Martin.The Providence of Wit: Aspects of Form in Augustan Literature and the Arts. Oxford: Clarendon, 1974. Hunter, J. Paul. Before Novels: The Cultural Context of Eighteenth-Century English Fiction. New York: WW Norton and Co. , 1990. McKeon, Michael. The Origins of the English Novel, 1600–1740. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987. Paulson, Ronald. Satire and the Novel in the Eighteenth Century. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967. Richetti, John. â€Å"Representing an Under Class: Servants and Prolatarians in Fielding and Smollett. † The New Eighteenth Century: Theory, Politics, English Literature. Eds. Felicity Nussbaum and Laura Brown.London: Routledge, 1987. Richetti,