Saturday, August 31, 2019

Building technology notes

In a building frame, a structural element that is shorter than usual, as a Cogged Joint stud above a door opening or below a window sill is called 2. A carpentry Joint by two uneven timbers, each of which is notched at Bull-nosed step the place where they cross 3. A step usually lowest in a flight, having one or both ends rounded to a Gravity wall Quoin semi-circle and projecting beyond the face of the stair string's 4. A massive concrete wall that resists overturning by virtue of its own weight 5. In masonry, a hard stone or brick used to reinforce an external cornerScarf Joint Baluster off wall 6. A type of half lapped Joint used to resist tension 7. One of a number of short vertical member often circular in section, Fenestration Fig. A-I mom Inflection point used to support a stair handrail 8. The arrangement and design of window in a building 9. What concrete block that is used in making a corner of an anchor wall 10. Lateral ties used for mom main bars for column is 1 1 . Refer to the portion of a beam where bending moment changes from Rowlock Scab positive to negative 12. A brick laid on its edge so that its end is visible 13.A short flat piece of lumber which is bolted, nailed or screwed to Cross bridging butting pieces in order to splice them together 14. Diagonal bracing in pairs between adjacent floor Joist to prevent the Web Brad Pyramid roof joist from twisting 15. A bar used to hold the reinforcement on a beam 16. A small finishing nail is called 17. A roof wherein the four sides are sloping towards the center Stirrup Pile terminating at a point 18. A metal sheet used to connect girder and floor Joist at the same level 19. A slender structural unit introduced onto the ground to transmit load Soldier Pigment o underground strata 20.Brick set on end with the narrow side showing is called 21 . Finely divided solid particles added to the vehicle to contribute color CACM Carriage Channel CM Fig 8-2 Miter box and durability to the paint 22. End lapping o f corrugated G. L. Roofing sheets 23. Inclined structural member that supports the steps of a stair 24. Structural steel shape having unsymmetrical balance 25. Hooked end off mom stirrups 26. Which among the concrete block is the header block 27. A device used as a guide of the hand saw in cutting object to form a Plastic hose with water 1 Com 40 bad. T. Fig.C-3 Bosses Load bearing wall Effective length Volume Stirrups Cement Gypsum board Fade Skylight Soft wood Fire brick Plaster ground miter Joint 28. The best and accurate tool for guiding the work in establishing a horizontal level 29. Minimum thickness of suspended R. C. Slab 30. Total board foot of 10 PC's. 31 . Which among the brick work is a common Flemish bond 32. Clearer is a product of 33. Wall that support weight from above as well as their own dead weight 34. The distance between inflection point in the column when it breaks 35. The amount of space measured in cubic units. 6. A bended rod to resist shear and diagonal str esses in a concrete 37. The most important component to determine the strength of concrete 38. Another term for plaster board 39. The face or front of a building 40. An opening in the roof for admitting light 41 . Wood coming from trees with needle leaves, rather than broad leaves 42. A kind of brick used for high temperature 43. A nailed strip incorporated in rough concrete wall to be plastered to act as guide and support for finish trim around opening and near the base Span Rip-rap Striking tool Fig. D-2 Striping of the wall 44.The distance between two structural supports 5. Stone placed on a slope to prevent erosion 46. Hammer is a 47. Which among the finger Joint is the hidden dove tail 48. The process of removing concrete forms from the cured concrete Purling 49. A structural member spanning front truss to truss or supporting Anchor bolts rafters 50. Steel bent inserted in masonry construction for scouring wood or Lintel plates to concrete construction 51 . A horizontal piece o f wood, stone, steel or concrete across the top of door or window opening to bear the weight of the walls above the Chord Sleeper Stud opening 52.The placing of glass in windows and doors 53. A rejected building material because of its below standard grade 54. A Joint produced by lapping two pieces of materials 55. Lumber that still contains moisture or sap 56. The internal angle formed by the two roof slopes of a roof 57. A vertical board attached on the ends of the rafters. It is part of the cornice 58. A large heavy nail is referred to as 59. What is the scientific name of wood 60. A wall that holds back on earth embankment 61 . The term used to indicate top and lower principal member off roof or bridge truss 62.Strips of hardwood usually 2†³xx† laid over a concrete slab floor 63. A vertical tutorial member which acts as a supporting element in a Tyrone finish wall or partition 64. Rough plaster finish obtained by flinging plaster on a wall with a hand Adiabatic curing operated machine 65. The curing of concrete or mortar without the gain or loss of heat Vinyl tile Creep Riser Plough during the curing period 66. A floor tile composed principally of polyvinyl chloride 67. The permanent deformation of a materials under a sustained load 68. The vertical face of a stair 69.A groove extended along the edge or face of the wood member Glazing cull Lap Joint Green lumber Valley Fascia Spike Xylem Retaining wall Post-tensioning Ashlars brick Perforated tape Control Joint Hopper Parquet Wrought iron Lag screw Lead Goslings Admixture Gallivanted Seismic stile Baseboard Mortar Balalaikas Barbarian Contusion Saturday Rooster Sloshes Platelets Skittishly Abattoir Gillian Lastingly Tubs De banana Cesspool Pie De Gallo Bandier being cut parallel to grain 70. The stressing of unbounded tendons after concrete has cured 71 . A brick whose face has been hacked to resemble roughly hacked stone 72.A type of tape used in finishing Joints between gypsum board 73. Employ ed to reduce restraint by accommodating movement of masonry walls 4. A window sash which opens inward and is hinged at the bottom 75. Inlaid wood flooring usually set in simple geometric pattern 76. Anchor bolts and strap are molded out of 77. Common hardware fastener for truss braces 78. Sealer type of washer for 6. 1. Roofing sheets 79. Trade name for anti-termite surface application on wood 80. Retards or accelerators concrete setting 81 . Coated with zinc 82. Technical term for earthquake 83.Vertical frame of paneled door 84. Fascia between floor and wall 85. Cement, sand, and water 86. Filipino term for framework 87. Filipino term for bottom chord 88. Filipino term for collar 89. Filipino term for plastered course 90. Filipino term for purling 91 . Filipino term for wainscoting tiles 92. Filipino term for wrought iron strap 93. Filipino term for ceiling Joist 94. Filipino term for door fillet 95. Filipino term for girder 96. Filipino term for masonry fill 97. Filipino term for downspout 98. Filipino term for cabinet hinge 99. Filipino term for brace 100.Filipino term for temper (metal work) Horizontal distance from the face of a lock or latch to the center of the knob or lock yielder A principal member of a truss Rough plaster finish obtained by flinging plaster on a wall with a hand operating machine A roofing tile which has the shape of â€Å"S† laid on its side A commercially pure iron of fibrous nature, valued for its corrosion resistance and ductility COLD JOINT A Joint formed when a concrete surface hardens before the next batch of concrete FOUNDATION WALL is placed against it Has high compressive strength but low tensile strength Horizontal surfaces on which the stone units lie on course That part of the foundation for a building which forms the permanent retaining wall Building technology notes In a building frame, a structural element that is shorter than usual, as a Cogged Joint stud above a door opening or below a window sill is called 2. A carpentry Joint by two uneven timbers, each of which is notched at Bull-nosed step the place where they cross 3. A step usually lowest in a flight, having one or both ends rounded to a Gravity wall Quoin semi-circle and projecting beyond the face of the stair string's 4. A massive concrete wall that resists overturning by virtue of its own weight 5. In masonry, a hard stone or brick used to reinforce an external cornerScarf Joint Baluster off wall 6. A type of half lapped Joint used to resist tension 7. One of a number of short vertical member often circular in section, Fenestration Fig. A-I mom Inflection point used to support a stair handrail 8. The arrangement and design of window in a building 9. What concrete block that is used in making a corner of an anchor wall 10. Lateral ties used for mom main bars for column is 1 1 . Refer to the portion of a beam where bending moment changes from Rowlock Scab positive to negative 12. A brick laid on its edge so that its end is visible 13.A short flat piece of lumber which is bolted, nailed or screwed to Cross bridging butting pieces in order to splice them together 14. Diagonal bracing in pairs between adjacent floor Joist to prevent the Web Brad Pyramid roof joist from twisting 15. A bar used to hold the reinforcement on a beam 16. A small finishing nail is called 17. A roof wherein the four sides are sloping towards the center Stirrup Pile terminating at a point 18. A metal sheet used to connect girder and floor Joist at the same level 19. A slender structural unit introduced onto the ground to transmit load Soldier Pigment o underground strata 20.Brick set on end with the narrow side showing is called 21 . Finely divided solid particles added to the vehicle to contribute color CACM Carriage Channel CM Fig 8-2 Miter box and durability to the paint 22. End lapping o f corrugated G. L. Roofing sheets 23. Inclined structural member that supports the steps of a stair 24. Structural steel shape having unsymmetrical balance 25. Hooked end off mom stirrups 26. Which among the concrete block is the header block 27. A device used as a guide of the hand saw in cutting object to form a Plastic hose with water 1 Com 40 bad. T. Fig.C-3 Bosses Load bearing wall Effective length Volume Stirrups Cement Gypsum board Fade Skylight Soft wood Fire brick Plaster ground miter Joint 28. The best and accurate tool for guiding the work in establishing a horizontal level 29. Minimum thickness of suspended R. C. Slab 30. Total board foot of 10 PC's. 31 . Which among the brick work is a common Flemish bond 32. Clearer is a product of 33. Wall that support weight from above as well as their own dead weight 34. The distance between inflection point in the column when it breaks 35. The amount of space measured in cubic units. 6. A bended rod to resist shear and diagonal str esses in a concrete 37. The most important component to determine the strength of concrete 38. Another term for plaster board 39. The face or front of a building 40. An opening in the roof for admitting light 41 . Wood coming from trees with needle leaves, rather than broad leaves 42. A kind of brick used for high temperature 43. A nailed strip incorporated in rough concrete wall to be plastered to act as guide and support for finish trim around opening and near the base Span Rip-rap Striking tool Fig. D-2 Striping of the wall 44.The distance between two structural supports 5. Stone placed on a slope to prevent erosion 46. Hammer is a 47. Which among the finger Joint is the hidden dove tail 48. The process of removing concrete forms from the cured concrete Purling 49. A structural member spanning front truss to truss or supporting Anchor bolts rafters 50. Steel bent inserted in masonry construction for scouring wood or Lintel plates to concrete construction 51 . A horizontal piece o f wood, stone, steel or concrete across the top of door or window opening to bear the weight of the walls above the Chord Sleeper Stud opening 52.The placing of glass in windows and doors 53. A rejected building material because of its below standard grade 54. A Joint produced by lapping two pieces of materials 55. Lumber that still contains moisture or sap 56. The internal angle formed by the two roof slopes of a roof 57. A vertical board attached on the ends of the rafters. It is part of the cornice 58. A large heavy nail is referred to as 59. What is the scientific name of wood 60. A wall that holds back on earth embankment 61 . The term used to indicate top and lower principal member off roof or bridge truss 62.Strips of hardwood usually 2†³xx† laid over a concrete slab floor 63. A vertical tutorial member which acts as a supporting element in a Tyrone finish wall or partition 64. Rough plaster finish obtained by flinging plaster on a wall with a hand Adiabatic curing operated machine 65. The curing of concrete or mortar without the gain or loss of heat Vinyl tile Creep Riser Plough during the curing period 66. A floor tile composed principally of polyvinyl chloride 67. The permanent deformation of a materials under a sustained load 68. The vertical face of a stair 69.A groove extended along the edge or face of the wood member Glazing cull Lap Joint Green lumber Valley Fascia Spike Xylem Retaining wall Post-tensioning Ashlars brick Perforated tape Control Joint Hopper Parquet Wrought iron Lag screw Lead Goslings Admixture Gallivanted Seismic stile Baseboard Mortar Balalaikas Barbarian Contusion Saturday Rooster Sloshes Platelets Skittishly Abattoir Gillian Lastingly Tubs De banana Cesspool Pie De Gallo Bandier being cut parallel to grain 70. The stressing of unbounded tendons after concrete has cured 71 . A brick whose face has been hacked to resemble roughly hacked stone 72.A type of tape used in finishing Joints between gypsum board 73. Employ ed to reduce restraint by accommodating movement of masonry walls 4. A window sash which opens inward and is hinged at the bottom 75. Inlaid wood flooring usually set in simple geometric pattern 76. Anchor bolts and strap are molded out of 77. Common hardware fastener for truss braces 78. Sealer type of washer for 6. 1. Roofing sheets 79. Trade name for anti-termite surface application on wood 80. Retards or accelerators concrete setting 81 . Coated with zinc 82. Technical term for earthquake 83.Vertical frame of paneled door 84. Fascia between floor and wall 85. Cement, sand, and water 86. Filipino term for framework 87. Filipino term for bottom chord 88. Filipino term for collar 89. Filipino term for plastered course 90. Filipino term for purling 91 . Filipino term for wainscoting tiles 92. Filipino term for wrought iron strap 93. Filipino term for ceiling Joist 94. Filipino term for door fillet 95. Filipino term for girder 96. Filipino term for masonry fill 97. Filipino term for downspout 98. Filipino term for cabinet hinge 99. Filipino term for brace 100.Filipino term for temper (metal work) Horizontal distance from the face of a lock or latch to the center of the knob or lock yielder A principal member of a truss Rough plaster finish obtained by flinging plaster on a wall with a hand operating machine A roofing tile which has the shape of â€Å"S† laid on its side A commercially pure iron of fibrous nature, valued for its corrosion resistance and ductility COLD JOINT A Joint formed when a concrete surface hardens before the next batch of concrete FOUNDATION WALL is placed against it Has high compressive strength but low tensile strength Horizontal surfaces on which the stone units lie on course That part of the foundation for a building which forms the permanent retaining wall

Friday, August 30, 2019

American Gothic Architecture

For only the antique style of architecture is conceived in a purely objective spirit; the Gothic style is more in the subjective spirit. American Gothic architecture was the outcome of a way of thought, the product of a special kind of imagination. Every one will easily be able to see clearly how from the fundamental thought and the peculiarities of Gothic architecture, there arises that mysterious and hyperphysical character which is attributed to it. It principally arises from the fact that here the arbitrary has taken the place of the purely rational, which makes itself known as the thorough adoption of the means to the end.The many things that are really aimless, but yet are so carefully perfected, raise the assumption of unknown, unfathomed, and secret ends, i. e. , give the appearance of mystery. On the other hand, the brilliant side of Gothic churches is the interior; because here the effect of the groined vaulting borne by slender, crystalline, aspiring pillars, raised high a loft, and, all burden having disappeared, promising eternal security, impresses the mind; while most of the faults which have been mentioned lie upon the outside.In antique buildings the external side is the most advantageous, because there we see better the support and the burden; in the interior, on the other hand, the flat roof always retains something depressing and prosaic. For the most part, also, in the temples of the ancients, while the outworks were many and great, the interior proper was small. An appearance of sublimity is gained from the hemispherical vault of a cupola, as in the Pantheon, of which, therefore, the Italians also, building in this style, have made a most extensive use.What determines this is, that the ancients, as southern peoples, lived more in the open air than the northern nations who have produced the Gothic style of architecture. Whoever, then, absolutely insists upon Gothic architecture being accepted as an essential and authorized style may, if he i s also fond of analogies, regard it as the negative pole of architecture, or, again, as its minor key.With the recent explosion of Gothic criticism, scholars have failed to juxtapose Gothic novels and dramas with archival architectural sources to explore the interrelationship between literature and architecture in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. The scholars who have rescued the Gothic novel from literary history's dust heap have provided cultural historians with a base from which to examine the sweeping influence of this significant literary genre.In the United States, Gothic novels and Scott's historical romances (which were inspired by Gothic pioneers Walpole and Radcliffe), had an enormous impact on architecture in the period between 1800 and 1850. The groundwork in Gothic literary scholarship allows us to move beyond literature to examine how the Gothic seeps into other forms of artistic creation. One of the earliest American architects to enjoy G othic novels was Benjamin Henry Latrobe (1764-1820).Although born in Great Britain and educated in Europe, Latrobe immigrated to the United States at the age of thirty-one, arriving in March 1796. About three months after relocating to Virginia, Latrobe wrote in his journal that he found Radcliffe's descriptions of buildings so â€Å"successful† that he â€Å"once endeavored to plan the Castle of Udolpho from Radcliffe's account of it and found it impossible† . Latrobe began experimenting with Gothic architectural forms for residential design in the United States in 1799.Latrobe's Gothic work includes Sedgeley (built for William Crammond near Philadelphia in 1799 and considered the first Gothic Revival house in the United States); the Baltimore Cathedral design (unexecuted; 1805); Christ Church in Washington, DC (1806-07); the Bank of Philadelphia (1807-08); and St. Paul's in Alexandria, Virginia (1817) (see photos). But, overall, Latrobe's Gothic output pales in compa rison to his rational neoclassical efforts such as the Bank of Pennsylvania (1799-1801). His Gothic Revival designs are symmetrical with superficial Gothic detailing.For example, Sedgeley is a geometric form Gothicized by the placement of pointed arch windows in the pavilions that protrude from the corners of the house. Despite this Gothic touch, there is little mystery or surprise in store for the observer of Latrobe's Gothic creations. Although he clearly read Radcliffe's books and was quite possibly influenced by them, he did not translate the mysterious, rambling architectural spaces of her stories into his own architecture. Other American architects, too, dabbled in Gothic Revival design before the 1830s. Some notable examples include Maxmillan Godefroy's St.Mary's Seminary in Baltimore (1806); Charles Bulfinch's Federal Street Church in Boston (1809); and the unexecuted design for Columbia College (1813) by James Renwick Sr. , engineer and father of the architect James Renwick . Daniel Wadsworth, who designed for himself a Gothic Revival villa called Monte Video (c. 1805-1809) near Hartford, Connecticut, explained that, to him, the Gothic style was not inherently menacing as are the castles and convents of Gothic novels: â€Å"There is nothing in the mere forms or embellishments of the pointed style [†¦ ] in the least adapted to convey to the mind the impression of Gothic Gloom† .His house bears out this belief; Gothic details appear as an afterthought, a decorative motif rather than a programmatic agenda. It was not until the 1830s and 1840s that American Gothic Revival architecture came of age. The most prominent designer of Gothic residences in this period was Davis. Davis was born in New York City in 1803 and, during his boyhood, lived in New Jersey and New York. When he was sixteen, he moved to Alexandria, Virginia, to learn a trade with his older brother Samuel. Davis worked as a type compositor in the newspaper office.Besides work, his four years at Alexandria were filled with two of his favourite activities: reading and acting. An amateur actor who performed in several plays while he was in Virginia, Davis was a voracious reader as well. His two pocket diaries from this period, preserved at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, are filled with youthful exuberance. Often, Davis would begin an entry with an illustration from a text, which would then be excerpted in his own handwriting. Among the dramas that he read and illustrated were Maturin's Bertram: or the Castle of St.Aidobrand and Heinrich Zschokke's Abadilino. Maturin was an Irish Gothic novelist and dramatist who corresponded with an encouraging Scott. After reading Maturin's drama Bertram, Scott wrote that the character of Bertram had a â€Å"Satanic dignity which is often truly sublime† . Starring Edmund Kean, Bertram opened on 9 May 1816 at the Drury Lane Theatre in London, with the support of Lord Byron, who was impressed with the play. In one of his pocket diaries, Davis made an illustration of the play's first act, showing a ship tossed on a stormy sea in view of a Gothic convent.The setting of the play is quintessentially Gothic from the â€Å"rock-based turrets† of the convent to the moonlit â€Å"terrassed rampart† of the castle of Aldobrand. Davis copied an excerpt from the play into his diary and as the budding actor included Bertram in his list of recitations. While he was a youth in Alexandria, Davis engaged in amateur theatricals and became interested in stage design. He dreamed of becoming a professional actor. Davis's illustration filters the Shakespearean scene through contemporary Gothic, emphasizing the mysterious flicker of the nightstand candle and the inky blackness of unknowable architectural spaces.At the age of twenty, Davis moved to New York City, and his fascination with the theatre continued. In the evenings, he frequented the theatre and was on the free list at both the Park The ater and the Castle Garden Theater in 1826 and 1828. He also expressed his love of drama in his artistic work. In 1825, he completed a study for a proscenium featuring Egyptian columns and Greek bas-relief sculpture and numerous portraits of actors in character, including â€Å"Brutus in the Rostrum† and â€Å"Mr. Kemble as Roma†. That so early in his life Davis was fascinated with the theatre is significant to his later Gothic Revival architectural creations.The dramatic images he drew for his youthful diaries display his acute interest in stage design and scenography. Indeed, Gothic Revival architecture is inherently theatrical, a quality often commented upon by architecture critics. Davis often used trompe-l'oeil materials to create theatrical effects, substituting plaster for stone. Davis's houses, then, become stage sets, in which the owners' mediaeval fantasies, inspired by Gothic romances, can take flight. While still in Alexandria, Davis's sensible older brothe r bristled at what he perceived to be the younger Davis's useless pastime of reading Gothic books.Later in life, Davis wrote to William Dunlap about himself in the third person for Dunlap's History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States: â€Å"Like another Franklin, strongly addicted to reading, he limited himself to the accomplishment of a fixed task, and being a quick compositor, he would soon complete it, and fly to his books, but not like Franklin, to books of science and useful learning, but to works of imagination, poetry, and the drama; whence, however, he imbibed a portion of that high imaginative spirit so necessary to constitute an artist destined to practise in the field of invention†.Davis's brother condemned such reading and turned Davis's attention to â€Å"history, biography and antiquities, to language and the first principles of the mathematics†. The architectural allure of Gothic literature fascinated Davis. As a young man , Davis was known to â€Å"pass hours in puzzling over the plan of some ancient castle of romance, arranging the trap doors, subterraneous passages, and drawbridges, as pictorial embellishment was the least of his care, invention all his aim†.Any Gothic novel of the late eighteenth century may have been the subject of his artistic dreaming, but most likely he is referring here to either Walpole's The Castle of Otranto or Radcliffe's The Mysteries of Udolpho, two of the most popular and influential of the Gothic novels. Davis's catalogue of books shows that he owned both books. The image depicts a partly ruinous labyrinthine space with a multitude of pointed arches leading to mysterious staircases (perhaps inspired by Giovanni Battista Piranesi's Carceri). Light filters in through barred windows.This drawing shows his early interest in the Gothic underworld, which is described in detail in The Castle of Otranto. The castle of Otranto (see photo) contains intricate subterranean passages that lead from the castle to the church of St. Nicholas, and through which the virtuous Isabella is chased by the lustful Manfred. Scott cannot be considered a Gothic novelist in the same way that his predecessors Walpole and Radcliffe are. Scott's genre is historical romance, but the influence of the Gothic is omnipresent in his work.From his earliest days and throughout his life, Scott read tales of terror. In 1812, after the success of his three poems and before he began writing his Waverley novel series, Scott purchased 110 acres, upon which he built his elaborate Gothic castle (1812-1815; enlarged in 1819). He named his new home Abbotsford after the monks of Meirose Abbey. The architect was William Atkinson. Abbotsford has been described as â€Å"an asymmetrical pile of towers, turrets, stepped gables, oriels, pinnacles, crenelated parapets, and clustered chimney stacks, all assembled with calculated irregularity†.Visitors flocked to Abbotsford to see the autho r and his residence first-hand, and, according to Thomas Carlyle, Abbotsford soon â€Å"became infested to a great degree with tourists, wonder-hunters, and all that fatal species of people†. Architectural historians often praise Strawberry Hill for introducing asymmetry into British domestic design and historicism into the Gothic Revival. But it is also important for another reason: the castle inspired Walpole to write his Gothic novel The Castle of Otranto in 1764.In A Description of the Villa of Mr. Horace Walpole, Walpole writes that Strawberry Hill is â€Å"a very proper habitation of, as it was the scene that inspired, the author of The Castle of Otranto†. One June morning, Walpole awoke from a dream: â€Å"I had thought myself in an ancient castle (a very natural dream for a head filled, like mine, with Gothic story) and that, on the uppermost bannister of a great staircase, I saw a gigantic hand in armor† (Early 88). That evening, Walpole sat down to wri te The Castle of Otranto.The setting of the story, as Walpole tells us in the preface, is â€Å"undoubtedly laid in some real castle†; indeed, as W. S. Lewis has shown, the rooms at Strawberry Hill and those in the pages of The Castle of Otranto correspond. Read by British and American readers alike, The Castle of Otranto enjoyed popularity long after Walpole's death in 1797. About the castle, Gilmor wrote: Tis in the most beautiful Gothic (light) style. Much cut up into small rooms, none, except the long picture gallery being large. Some of the ceilings beautifully gilded others beautifully fitted in wood or scagliola.But all things, wainscottings, – door-fireplaces – all Gothic. [†¦ ] These same rooms crammed – most literally crammed – with chef d'oeuvres of Antient and modern paintings, statuary; sarcophaguses, Bronzes and silver carvings of Benvenuto Cellini and others. [†¦ ] In this superb cabinet of curiosities for such the Gothic c astle deserves to be called, I strolled delighted. On 21 September 1832, not long after Gilmor's return in late 1830 or early 1831, Scott died. Two weeks later, on 5 October 1832, Davis makes his first notes on Glen Ellen in his day book.Perhaps Gilmor may have conceived of Glen Ellen as a tribute or romantic memorial to his genial host at Abbotsford. Indeed, as William Pierson has shown, the plans of Abbotsford and Glen Ellen both display a progression from left to right of octagonal corner turret to octagonal bay to square corner tower. But Abbotsford is not the only source for Glen Ellen. Gilmor was very impressed with the rococo Gothic he saw at Strawberry Hill, and the interior decoration of Walpole's residence becomes the inspiration for the exterior ornamentation at Glen Ellen.The battlements, pinnacles, towers, and pointed arch windows all recall Strawberry Hill, and the long rectangular parlour mirrors Walpole's mediaeval gallery. Both Abbotsford and Strawberry Hill are sit ed along rivers; it is significant, then, that Gilmor chose a site for Glen Ellen on the Gunpowder River, twelve miles north of Baltimore. While Town, Davis, and Gilmor were clearly indebted to Walpole and Atkinson, Glen Ellen is quite unlike anything that had come before it in American architecture.Most striking is its adoption of the complete Gothic program: it is asymmetrical in plan and elevation; its rooms are of disproportionate sizes; its ornamentation is both whimsical and reliant on recognizable mediaeval architectural forms. Glen Ellen is certainly not a repetition of Benjamin Henry Latrobe's and Daniel Wadsworth's earlier forays into the Gothic Revival style for domestic architecture. Unlike Sedgeley and Monte Video, where Gothic Revival ornament appears as an afterthought, Glen Ellen wears its mediaeval styling in a more assertive manner.Here Town and Davis enlisted the picturesque element of surprise; the beholder of Glen Ellen views a shifting facade with unexpected to wer protrusions and heavily ornamented bay windows. Although light and airy Glen Ellen lacks the gloom of Radcliffe's architectural spaces, the architects do create a villa in which the element of surprise is paramount. What is most significant about Glen Ellen is its conception as a place of fantasy, a literary indulgence to whet the Gothic appetite of its well-travelled owner.That Glen Ellen imitates the facade of Abbotsford or the interior ornamentation of Strawberry Hill is important; but more momentous is the idea of Glen Ellen as a retreat into the mediaeval world popularized by Gothic novels and historical romances. But Glen Ellen is Gothic fiction transformed into stone, a constant reminder of its owner's preferred reading material. With Glen Ellen, Gilmor pays homage to his favourite writers, thus participating in the cult of the Gothic author. Although he is the first, Gilmor will not be the last to yield to his literary fantasies by creating a permanent reminder of his Go thic passion.Influenced by Gothic novels and historical romance s, American writers James Fenimore Cooper and Washington Irving Gothicized their houses (Otsego Hall and Sunnyside, respectively) after visiting Gothic sites in Europe. After Glen Ellen, Davis went on to design numerous Gothic Revival cottages and villas, including his masterpiece, Lyndhurst in Tarrytown, New York (1838; 1865). Why were American architects, artists, and their clients so interested in mediaeval architecture? Their reading habits tell us a great deal.Mediaeval architecture plays a crucial role in Gothic novels and historical romances, leading some curious readers to visit mediaeval and Gothic Revival architectural sites related to their favourite novels. That American Gothic Revival architecture was closely related to the fictional works of writers such as Radcliffe and Scott is highlighted by a nineteenth-century observer's comments on a Gothic Revival building in New York City. Thomas Aldrich Bailey wro te in 1866 about the University of the City of New York (now New York University; original building demolished) on Washington Square: â€Å"There isn't a more gloomy structure outside of Mrs.Radcliff's [sic] romances, and we hold that few men could pass a week in these lugubrious chambers, without adding a morbid streak to their natures – the genial immates [sic] to the contrary notwithstanding†. Usually, though, the Gothic Revival buildings constructed in the United States in this period were anything but gloomy. Like Strawberry Hill, Davis's designs were light and airy; delicate rather than dark and massive (Davis does begin to experiment more with fortified castle designs in the 1850s).As Janice Schimmelman has argued, Scott's novels recast the Gothic architectural style, moving it away from the barbarism associated with the Middle Ages and toward a more domestic ideal. An American author who wrote at the same time as Scott sums it up nicely by saying, â€Å"A cast le without a ghost is fit for nothing but to live in†. Certain Gothic work in the Boston neighborhood, by Solomon Willard and Gridley Bryant, has a kind of brutal power because of its simple granite treatment.But these early gray and lowering edifices, despite their pointed windows and their primitive tracery, are scarcely within the true Gothic tenor. That remained almost unknown in this country until suddenly, between 1835 and 1850, it was given abundant expression in the work of three architects -Richard Upjohn, James Renwick, and Minard Lafever. Upjohn, in Trinity Church, set a tradition for American church architecture which has hardly died yet; and Renwick, in Grace Church in New York (see photo), showed the exquisite richness that Gothic could give.Minard Lafever's work is more daring, more original, and less correct, but in the Church of the Holy Trinity in Brooklyn (see photo), only slightly later than Trinity and Grace, he achieved a combination of lavish detail, ima ginative variations on Gothic themes, and a general effectiveness of proportion and composition which make it one of the most successful, as it is certainly the most American, of all these early Gothic Revival churches.Yet even in these, correct as they were in detail, beautiful in mass and line, there was always a certain sense of unreality. The old tradition of integrity in structure, on which the best Greek Revival architects had so insistently based their work, was breaking down. Romanticism, with its emphasis on the effect and its comparative lack of interest in how the effect was produced, was sapping at the whole integral basis of architecture.These attractive Gothic churches were, all of them, content with lath-and-plaster vaults. In them the last connections between building methods and building form disappeared, and in their very success they did much to establish in America the disastrous separation between engineering and architecture which was to curse American building for two generations.The best of the American Gothic work remains in its simpler, its less ostentatious, monuments: the little churches in which wood was allowed frankly to be itself, as in the small frame chapels which Upjohn designed for country villages and distant mission stations; and the frank carpenter Gothic of the picturesque high-gabled cottages which rose so bewitchingly embowered in heavy trees along many of our Eastern village streets. The polychrome Victorian Gothic of England also became a brief American fashion.A number of architects, especially in New York and later in early Chicago, fell under the spell of Ruskin's persuasive writing, and sought as he did to create a modern, freely designed, inventive, nineteenth-century Gothic. But here also the strings that bound America and England seemed too tenuous to hold for long; and in spite of the occasional appealing successes of the style – such as the old National Academy of Design with its black-and-white marbl e front, designed by Peter B.Wight, and some of Renwick's city houses – the Victorian Gothic was doomed in America to swift disintegration into the cheapest and most illogical copying of its most obvious mannerisms, and a complete negation of its essential foundations. It became in a sense a caricature, to be rapidly swallowed up in the confusion of eclecticism which the last quarter of the century brought with it. If we might sum up French Gothic as architecture of clear and structural power, and English as the architecture of personalized rural charm, American Gothic would be the architecture of experimental and dynamic zest.American Gothic architecture was much more than the solution of building problems; it was also the expression of a new America that had been gradually coming into being – a new America which was the result of the gradual decay of the feudal system under the impact of trade, prosperity, and the growth of national feeling. The Gothic Revival in Ame rica was more a matter of intellectual approach than of architectural work. The sudden new enthusiasm for medieval work made all America passionately aware of its amazing architectural wealth, and also acutely conscious of the disintegration which threatened ruin to so many of the medieval structures.Nowhere did the Gothic Revival have a greater and a more revolutionary effect than in America, which had given it its first expression, for nowhere else were the forces behind it so irresistibly strong. In Germany, nationalism had led the architects of the romantic age into the byways of Romanesque and of Renaissance. In France, the strong classic traditions of the Ecole des Beaux Arts held firm against all the attacks of the romanticists and gave, at least to the official work, the requisite classic stamp.But, in America, religious fervor, so closely allied to the desires of the court and the government, made the drive toward Gothic design irrepressible, and there was no academic and c lassic tradition powerful enough to withstand it. Furthermore, the movement was blessed with extremely brilliant and articulate writers, who had the gift not only of interesting the specialist but of moving the general population. Gothic architecture was best now because it was the most Christian, later because it was the most creative and least imitative, then again because it was the most honest – whatever that might mean.The religious facets of the movement had an even greater importance. The whole American church was exercised more and more about the fundamental problems of ritualism and historical tradition. The most important ecclesiastical thinkers were reacting against the routine secularism of the eighteenthcentury church, demanding not only greater seriousness and a more intense devotion to Christian ideals, but also expressing their conviction that the medieval church had been a vital force and medieval devotion a vivid experience that had been subsequently lost, a nd that therefore the easiest way to reform the church was by a return to medievalism.Of the religious controversies these ideas aroused it is not necessary to particularize. Also important is the fact that everywhere these religious controversies focused attention on medieval church architecture, and that there was the closest relationship between architecture and ritual. Therefore, the theory went, if it was necessary to return to the medieval conception of Christianity, it was equally essential to return to medievalism in church design. There more subtle factor behind the Gothic Revival in architecture.The word â€Å"romanticism† has accumulated so many different meanings in the course of a century of criticism that it is necessary to be more precise. Behind the new interest in medieval architecture went a search for emotional expression which was a new thing. Romanticism means many more things than mere antiquarianism, for from the point of view of a mere turn to the past the Classic Revivals might also be considered romantic; but, as we have seen, the architects of the Classic Revival were striving primarily for form which should be serene, well composed, consistent, harmonious, adequate.The true romanticist is not satisfied with this. He demands more; he demands that architecture shall be â€Å"expressive† – that is, that it shall aim definitely at expressing specific emotions such as religious awe, grandeur, gaiety, intimacy, sadness. He seeks to make architecture as expressive and as personal as a lyric poem, and oftentimes this demand for emotional expression he makes superior to any other claims.All architecture is expressive; but, whereas the classic architect allows the expression to arise naturally from forms developed in the common-sense solution of his problem, the true romantic seeks expression first, with a definite self-conscious urge. To the romantic architect of the mid-nineteenth century, Romanesque and Gothic had some how come to seem more emotional than the other styles. References Andrews, Wayne. American Gothic: Its Origins, Its Trials. Its Triumphs. New York: Random House, 1975. Donoghue, John.Alexander Jackson Davis, Romantic Architect, 1803-1892. New York: Arno Press, 1982. Dunlap, William. â€Å"History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States. 1834. † Vol. 3. Ed. Alexander Wyckoff. New York: Benjamin Blom, 1965. Early, James. Romanticism and American Architecture. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1965. Latrobe, Benjamin Henry. â€Å"The Virginia Journais of Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1795-1798. † Vol. 1. Ed. Edward C. Carter II. New Haven: Yale UP, 1977. Lougy, Robert E. Charles Robert Maturin. Lewisburg: Bucknell UP, 1975.Pierson, William H. , Jr. American Buildings and Their Architects: Technology and the Picturesque, The Corporate and the Early Gothic Styles. 1978. Garden City, NY: Anchor, 1980. Robertson, Fiona. Legitimate Histories: Scott; Gothic, and the Authorities of Fiction. Oxford: Clarendon, 1994. Schimmelman, Janice Gayle. The Spirit of the Gothic: The Gothic Revival House in Nineteenth-Century America. Diss. U of Michigan, 1980. Snadon, Patrick. A. J. Davis and the Gothic Revival Castle in America, 1832-1865. Diss. Cornell U, 1988.

Cango Wk 4 Swot

SWOT Analysis: Swot stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. The SWOT analysis will assist CanGo understand the opportunities that are obtainable and what threats may have an effect on its business. Before moving onward with new ventures CanGo needs to evaluate the arrangement they currently have in the market. Performing a SWOT analysis technique would be very beneficial at this point and will serve as the baseline to elaborate on a strategic plan for the organization.C&G consultants have been monitoring CanGo’s processes for quite sometime, and we have developed the following preliminary SWOT analysis: Strength: ?Purchasing an automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS) would help to improve the warehouse, by purchasing an automated storage and retrieval system it is a great solution for CanGo’s handling inventory in a more effective and efficient manner. ?CanGo has had tremendous growth over the past couple of years. CanGo has also been recogni zed for as one of the fastest growing small business in the Hudson Valley. CanGo is continually looking to venture out into other areas, in an effort of improving the overall organization. Weaknesses: ?One of the biggest issues is the fact that CanGo does not have a Vision and Mission Statement. Without a vision and mission the organization does not have a clear direction of the organization. ?CanGo is also missing a Strategic plan, without a strategic plan there is no roadmap for growth and prosperity. Strategic planning will help you foresee and react quickly to market changes and opportunities.CanGo should conduct these strategic plans routinely, by doing so it helps you to see opportunities earlier and set up contingency plans so threats are minimized. ?Lack of a system analysis and programmer is also a weakness for CanGo, in general a system analyst would ensure that the requirements set forth by the business are captured and documented correctly before the solution is develope d and implemented. Currently this is not happening for CanGo, so this is an area that needs to be addressed, without it CanGo would not have the knowledge of understanding how present and future business needs will impact the olutions and the implementation process. Opportunities: ?Investing in an in-house database that incorporates into an automated storage and retrieval system ASRS. Fully automated and integrated storage systems are the ultimate in warehouse management and efficiency. They allow for complete integration of the company’s ERP software with warehouse retrieval storage system. Order picking is optimized and controlled. ?CanGo would also benefit from updating their website to reinforce corporate and brand identity, this would help their existing investment in marketing go further.This would allow for CanGo to advertise services and products, build customer relations through personalized services, they could also benefit by conducting market research through thei r website. The internet is a great opportunity for your business to compete on a much more level playing field with much larger businesses. Threats ?CanGo faces losing business from their website to other websites due to their web search taking too long, where the competition’s website is optimized and produces the results quicker Recommendations Issue 1: Marketing to the right customers and consumers is vital to every business.A company needs to know how to market to a certain target to attract their customers so they can sell their goods and create a profit from their inventory. CanGo built their success onluck and they never bothered to get into the details of how their company became successful. They are lacking important and vital information to keep their company successful. Since there is no marketing department in CanGo, I would suggest for them to hire an outside company to conduct their marketing research; I believe that they would benefit from this.The upper manage ment of CanGo should research the company that would best fit the job; perhaps choosing a company that specializes in the same industry as CanGo. There are many advantages to hiring an outside research company; they would be able to determine who the target customers are, where these customers are located, how to reach the target customers and exactly what type of product or services they are looking for. Once the marketing research company determines all of these issues, CanGo would be more effective in marketing their product.Issue 2: The fact that no one is tracking where the work is and who is supposed to be working on what can lead to many problems. Some employees may be doing more work than others because they are efficient and everything seems to land on their desk while others may be receiving credit for work they are not doing. In the video we saw that Nick was tasked out with creating a process flow chart, but he passed it on to someone else, and that some one pass it down to two more people. I believe in fair and equal work between team members so they should break down the work prior to initiating any task.There is nothing wrong with helping your teammates but not do the work for them. Passing work like that can also lead to it getting misplaced. They should use a flow chart to track where the work is. A Gantt chart or a document flow chart seem like a perfect fit for this occasion. The document flow chart will trace the process flow chart document through the system to avoid it getting lost. Losing information can also lead to the loss of secret or personal information. It can be very costly and time consuming to redo all the work that was lost.No one wants to redo what he or she already did. Issue 3: CanGo has been experiencing issues where customers are browsing the website and even selection items to purchase and placing them in their check-out cart; however the customers are leaving the website without making their purchases. It appears that t he customers are experiencing issues regarding making purchases from the website. C&G consultants have a number of recommendations to enhance the shop experience on CanGo’s website. One of the reasons may be due to trust.With internet connection, people want instant gratification. If your sale process is not hassle-free, many customers will go elsewhere. In order to keep customers coming back and to making purchases, CanGo needs to make sure that it is easy to navigate throughout the website, such as making sure that when a customer click on an item it loads up in a timely fashion, time counts, when shopping on websites. Other things that could enhance the website are having a clean and professional design; your home page has a huge impact on visitors.I would also include a search box that is user friendly, this way customers can locate items that they are interested in quickly. Online customer service is another feature that would enhance business, if customers wanted to cha t about checkout problems, this could prevent cart abandonment. Not only can live support help customers figure out your site, locate products or ask questions, live chat can be reactive, where the system triggers a chat invitation based on user behavior. Last but not least there should be links to social networks, such as (Facebook, Twitter, etc. , all of these functionalities would enhance the customers visit to your website more inviting and pleasurable. Issue 4: At CanGo, there is an increase in customer complaints and returns, and before they bring in a new ASRS system and spend more money, they need to correct the customer issues beforehand. If customers are not satisfied with CanGo products or the way they are handling the ordering process, then complaining is a good way for CanGo to realize they are doing something wrong, so they can fix it.In order to keep loyal CanGo customers as well as gain more, the company needs to address where the customers complaints are coming from . This could be from the website not being user-friendly or the customer is not getting enough feedback and going through with the purchase. If the customer does go through with the purchase, then CanGo seems to be getting more returns of the merchandise bought through the website.What CanGo needs to do is to start at the beginning to to look at the company through the eyes of the customer, and they need to figure out the best way to have the customer feel great and good about their purchases from step one of the buying process to the final purchasing stage of the process. Issue 5: Website optimization is very important to online businesses, when a customer makes a search on the website they do not want to have to wait long periods for the results.To improve the issue with the long search times they need to optimize their website and use website compression, this will allow the website to run much faster and produce the quicker results that the customers are wanting. Issue 6: To sol ve is issue with where the employees that are pickers will go once the ASRS system is implemented is simple, they can look at areas that have performance and possibly quality issues and they can place these employees there as opposed to terminating them. By placing these employees in these â€Å"problem† areas, this can increase the productivity of these areas increasing more work flow.Reference Monique. (2012, January 23). [Web log message]. Retrieved from http://upandrunning. bplans. com/2012/01/23/the-benefit-of-market-research/ Best practices for speeding up your web site. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://developer. yahoo. com/performance/rules. html CanGo Video Week 3&4. (2012, November 11). Retrieved from DeVry University: www. devryu. net Harris, D. (n. d. ). Types of Flow Charts. Retrieved November 20, 2012, from eHow: www. ehow. com/about_5061018_types-flowcharts. html CanGo Videos Weeks 3&4. 2012, November 19). Retrieved from DeVry University: www. devryu. net Center for simplified Strategic Planning. (2011, November). Simplified strategic planning. Retrieved November 2012, from The best ways to reward employees: www. cssp. com/http:;www. entrepreneur. com/article/753340 CanGo Videos Weeks 3&4. (2012, November 19). Retrieved from DeVry University: www. devryu. net Top 10 Things Customers Expect from Your Online Store. (2012, 11 20). GetEelastic. Retrieved from http://www. getelastic. com/customer-expectations/

Thursday, August 29, 2019

MHE514 - Psy. Social Aspts of Emerg. and Disaster Module 3 - Case Essay

MHE514 - Psy. Social Aspts of Emerg. and Disaster Module 3 - Case - Essay Example Lot of people were injured and even still people staying there reported lot of health problems. Most of the residents within the affected area, which covered eight square miles, lived in poverty. This village was populated with illiterate people and they were not aware of the possible safety measures when the tragedy occurred. â€Å"The Bhopal event was the worst industrial disaster ever, and provides a classic case to study from an environmental health viewpoint, as it raises important issues, not only in terms of toxicology, but also in terms of occupational health and safety, air pollution, epidemiology, risk assessment, disaster management, and environmental protection.   There has been much written about Bhopal, pointing out the lessons which we should learn, to prevent tragedies of this kind from occurring in the future.† (Muller) Most of the people affected by breathlessness, persistent cough, diminished vision, early age cataracts, loss of appetite, menstrual irregularities, recurrent fever, back and body aches, loss of sensation in limb, fatigue, weakness, anxiety etc. Even the survivors and the newly born babies reportedly having different kinds of cancers, tuberculosis, reproductive system problems and other problems such as growth retardation etc. It is clear that an industrial tragedy definitely may result in a long time health problems associated with the inhabitants. In one of the monument established at the tragedy site written as â€Å"No more Hiroshima, No more Bhopal† which clearly suggests the depth of the accident occurred. â€Å"A new Union Carbide scandal broke in India today as furious Bhopal survivors protested against leaked plans of a shadowy deal between Carbides 100% owner Dow Chemical and the Indian Oil Corporation to supply ethylene glycol technology for IOCs Panipat complex† (Murky deal may help Carbide sneak back into India)The first lesson we must learn from this tragedy is that Industrial plants

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Business Ethics Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 4

Business Ethics - Article Example By using private companies which it purchased, slush funds, and sham contracts the company was able to reroute the brides through extra levels of corporate disguise. The obvious moral issue here is that bribery is wrong. 2. Johnson and Johnson executives had a string of emails and other written communication explaining that the paying of bribes was a usual procedure of doing business in the countries. One email revealed that practically 95% of business in Greece is done this way. Also it is apparent that the method was so open that Greece accountants could not understand why it needed be hidden in their written notes. Brides were used to pay for the expenses of doctors going on medical conference trips. Johnson is a behemoth of a company and certainly other companies follow their leadership role. Their leadership role is based on experience with proven business techniques developed for surviving in a competitive market. One of these techniques, which Johnson as a well financed compan y can do well is bribing. 3. One can use the utilitarian rule of ethics here, the greatest good for the greatest number. It would be the variety of action based utilitarianism in which one's action would produce such a good.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Sustainability for BMW in the year 2054 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Sustainability for BMW in the year 2054 - Essay Example In fact, in the year 1999, four of the world’s ten largest companies belonged to the automotive sector (Clifton 2000, pg 34). In the year 2008, even when America argued about renewable energy and saw it as a fantasy, Germany at the time generated around 14.2% of their electrical power from renewable sources. The country has often been quoted as a leading player in clean technology, and the mix of environmentally friendly technologies. Germany seems to be at the epicenter of the world’s next big industrial revolution, which is the triumph of cheap, clean and sustainable electricity. Therefore, major companies such as BMW and Mercedes have been able to follow suit in the country’s footsteps in Green energy. BMW has been on the leader board of Group Dow Jones sustainability index for the 8th consecutive year. This, therefore, confirms that since the year 2005, BMW has been the world’s most sustainable premium automobile manufacturer. This is intended to continue into the year 2054 because of the fact that the company is an innovative and sustainability is one of its key especially when it comes to innovation. The influence of the country’s policies will also go a long way in ensuring that BMW remains environmentally friendly and sustainable. The future of BMW is bright; the company has been using words such as autonomous as well as electric to describe the characteristic of its cars in the future. The automobile in the year 2050 will automatically be self-driving; BMW has been working on a concept of allowing drivers to cruise along the highways without driver interference. This will be one of the key that will be seen on the roads in the year 2054. Cars will probably need that drivers observe that the motor vehicle does not toggle from one mode to the other, and this can be changed from main road driving to metropolis

Monday, August 26, 2019

Strategy for BP investment in Norway Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Strategy for BP investment in Norway - Case Study Example This investment strategy has been especially popular in the last thirty years. For example, joint ventures between European firms and foreign-based firms have increased by almost 30% since 1985 (Hess & Siegwart, 2013). While not all joint ventures in the oil and gas industry have been successful in the past, BP should use a joint venture for several reasons, most importantly because of the capital-intensive nature of the oil and gas industry. Using the joint venture strategy has become popular for oil and gas companies operating in foreign markets because it saves money. Along with metals processing and mineral extraction, oil and gas exploration and development is a capital intensive industry. Since Norways oil and gas industry is already well-developed, financing such an investment on its own would be a risky undertaking for BP, necessitating the use of a joint venture strategy to share costs and risk, as well as create economies of scale (Grandell et al, 2011). In addition, BP should use a joint venture strategy because of the high costs that will be involved in continuing their operations in such a capital-intensive industry. BP and other petroleum companies are heavily dependent on technology advances so as to achieve lower costs. A joint venture should enable BP to pool its personnel and funds with a Norwegian company with knowledge about the Norwegian petroleum sector in developing advanced technologies, specifica lly to reduce production and exploration costs, while also increasing profit margins. Ideally, BP and its Norwegian partner will contribute roughly the same amount of capital and resources into the joint venture, although Norway does not allow foreign companies to own majority stakes in their oil sector (Grandell et al, 2011). International financial institutions like the WTO, World Bank, and the IMF have been heavily involved in fostering international

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Cement Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Cement - Coursework Example First step encompasses preparation of material to their required size and condition. Mainly, this is size reduction of materials, which are bulky in size and cannot fit well in the rotary kiln besides ensuring intimate reaction of varied chemical components (ZKG, 2010). This process is raw milling mostly taking place in the field before transportation of lime (ZKG, 2010). Once materials arrive in the factory, mixing or blending of varied components takes place. This is to ensure uniform and intimate reaction of materials once they are in the kiln, which is always at high temperatures. However, these temperatures usually vary significantly in diverse sections. These include dehydration (- 4500C), Calcination (4500C to 9000C), solid-state reaction (9000 – to 13000C), clinkering section (13000C to 15500C) and finally cooling zone (Thomas & Jennings, 2008).  After formation and cooling of clinker in silo, milling commences with addition of other essential additives whose role is to ensure cement attains its required condition before stored in silosg (ZKG, 2010). Milling entails feeding the clinker into a four-chamber or cemernt mill coupled with addition of gypsum and other components to produce a very fine powder, which is cement (Taylor et al. 2008). After milling, the fine powder based on materials may stay in the silo for sometime before packaging takes place. This is to allow final residue process take places effectively whereby afterwards packaging or bagging takes place before kept in warehouses.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Sales agreement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Sales agreement - Essay Example 15 important points are elaborated, in which it starts with the product limited warranty. Acer emphasizes that no defects in materials will disturbed and provided workmanship during the limited warranty period if reparation is needed due to certain options. Fortunately, buyers can have hardware technical support via on-line, telephone and other methods. Buyers should be careful to use their own software since it might have errors that have no relation to be assisted by Acer. For the on-site service, buyers should understand their locations, because there are regulations of distance and geographical areas from Acer. Point number 5 (five) of â€Å"Limitations and Exclusions† be carefully noticed; in this case, those are things that Acer is not responsible for such as damages caused by personal faulty, damages caused by combination made to the products with other non-Gateway branded products, and mice problem at buyer’s place. Next, buyers should be on time to make registr ation of their warranty within 30 days after the purchase. Assistance from buyers is needed when there are problems to repair, and Acer want them to keep the data on other devices when the reparation is about to be done.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Contracting with the Federal Government Term Paper

Contracting with the Federal Government - Term Paper Example Contracting by Simplified Acquisition Procedures, FAR 13 This rule involves the government purchase of tools that are less than the value of $150,000. The government purchase of this equipment is considered micro purchases. The involved procedures do not require competitive bids or quotes and the involved agencies can buy through credit cards or the Government Purchase Card. In addition, it is not necessary to involve the procurement officer. However, most of the government purchases are in this category since most of the products purchased do not involve a lot of money. An example is the government purchase of office equipment such as chairs, tables, and computers. This category comprises of more than 70 per cent of all government purchase dealings. According to government statistics, this category involved a total sum of $19 billion dollars. The increase in government transaction in this category is because the Federal Acquisition Streamlining Act made several amendments to the act thus eliminating limitations on government purchases under $150,000. This means that agencies can be allowed to use abridged processes for soliciting and assessing bids worth up to $150,000. However, it is mandatory for the government agencies to publicize all deliberate procurements over $25,000 according to Federal Business Opportunities or on the government website, which enlists all the available procurement opportunities. One main advantage of this easy purchase processes is that they require fewer governmental details, less endorsement levels, and fewer documentation. However, these procedures require all the government procurements above $3,000, but under $150,000, to be kept back for small companies. in addition, the small businesses has to apply for the purchases except if the assigned agent cannot get proposals from two or more minor businesses who are competitive on price, quality and distribution (Government Contracting 101; Worthington & Goldsman, 1998). Contracting by Negotiation, FAR 15 This government rule requires that the government agencies to use negotiation as a contracting method. In order to do this, the federal agencies have to issue a request for proposal (RFP) or Request for Information (RFI) or Invitation for Bid (IFB).  Unlike the previous rule, this rule allows for, communications, Clarifications, and discussions  in the selection procedure and the government might permit for last proposal amendments.  In order for a company to be selected, some factors such as best value and trade-off processes are evaluated. This occurs depending with the interest of the government to contemplate issues other than the lowermost price or utmost technical rating, or the lowermost price that is technically appropriate source for selection, where the solicitation highlights the marginally suitable standards and the selection is founded on a price assessment amongst all suitable bids.  This rule applies mostly to contracts above $150,000, and extremely technical products and services are being pursued (Worthington & Goldsman, 1998). Contracting by Sealed Bidding, FAR 14 The Contracting by Sealed Bidding as described by the rule consist of making and advertising an invitation for bids (IFB). It also involves receiving the proposals, opening them openly, assessing them without negotiations with the bidders, and giving the agreement to the accountable and responsive bidder founded on price and

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Corporate Problem Solving Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Corporate Problem Solving - Essay Example Can anything be done about the wide variety and large amount of information that comes to many corporate planners on a daily basis' Most corporate planners get so much information that they can hardly manage their workloads. Yet, to make the business a success, they must make effective and throughough decisions, using up-to-date information (Hansen, 1995). As John Naisbitt pointed out on the first page of his best-seller Megatrends, "Although we continue to think we live in an industrial society, we have in fact changed to an economy based on the creation and distribution of information." (Thierauf, 1987). This "megashift" as defined by Naisbitt is "an explosive transformation from an industrial to an information society." (Thierauf, 1987). This shift is affecting all companies around the world, and especially in the United States. Therefore, to help problem-solving issues in business, the corporate planning should actually be focusing on problem finding: "future information in the form of problems and related opportunities should be evaluated and resolved in the present as it affects the business organization tomorrow." (Thierauf, 1987). What are some things that the business can do to help make this change and thus solve this problem' Two items need to taken into consideration when analyzing this issue and solving the information overload problem affecting many businesses. First, a change in environmental factors would help contribute to the defeat of the problem(Mitchell, 1954). Corporate planning is at the center of a business organization's decision making process and therefore the corporate planners contribute to the business' future on an almost daily basis(Hansen, 1995). Therefore, the organization needs to coordinate its notion with the outside business world. This means that the business needs to take a close look at the markets and always keep the information about the markets in mind when making decisions. This means taking a close look at how: "the organization operates, current knowledge of its customers and competitors, availability of capital, capabilities of available personnel, and sources of supply . Increasing prices of purchased materials, rising labor costs, and foreign competition signal the need for some type of management information system (MIS) that describes the organization's economic environment and coordinates the external environment with the internal factors to provide corporate planning information." (Thierauf, 1987). The next important item that can assist the business with this problem solving issue is to change internal environmental factors as well. The business needs to address changes that are happening and will happen in the future, and that are affecting the entire business world. Today, this revolves increasingly around technology, as businesses are expected to stay on the cutting edge of technology and technological trends. For most organizations, the hope of making an initial investment in technology creates the hopeful end result of saving money. In the business world, the old slogan is still the rule: "Time is money." Therefore, if the initial problem is time, as stated before, then the business could use certain types of technologies to help organized and cut back on the workload. While this would require an initial investment on the part of the company, it would also provide a

The Importance of Orientation in the Modern Organization Essay Example for Free

The Importance of Orientation in the Modern Organization Essay Employee orientation is perhaps one of the most neglected human resource functions in most companies. Providing new employees with a company manual and tons of documents is insufficient in terms of welcoming new employees to the company (Brown, n.d). Most of the time, new employees complain about a completely boring orientation or that they are left in the dark. As a result, the employee becomes confused and unproductive and will probably leave the company in a year’s time (Brown, n. d). This paper will first take a look at the definition of orientation as well as its functions. It will likewise provide some facts and figures related to employee orientation. Finally, it will present salient points to support the statement: An orientation is an important aspect of HR training. What is an Orientation? New employee orientation is the act of welcoming recruits into the organization. In most instances, the orientation program is facilitated by the Human Resources Department.   It provides information about safety, the working conditions, the job responsibilities, benefits and qualifications, corporate culture, history of the company, the organization structure, and other vital information needed in the company (Heathfield, n.d). In most cases, the new employee is introduced to each of the department of the organization. The new hiree usually undergoes an on-the-job training (OJT) to become acquainted with the functions of each department in the company (Heathfield, n.d). Purposes of Orientation New employee orientation involves more than just introducing benefits and welcoming the new employee to other workers. Orientation is a make or break period for the new hirees. Orientation programs conclude the hiring process and ushers in the start of retention (Heathfield, n.d). Orientation programs are not just about laying the cards down on the table. It provides an important phase of the recruitment and retention process. The vital purposes of employee orientation are (Heathfield, n.d): 1. Proper orientation can help lessen expenses in order for an employee to learn about their job (Heathfield, n.d). 2. Orientation programs can help lessen the anxiety of the new employee. Through orientation, the new employee need not guess about what should be done (Heathfield, n.d). 3. Employee turnover is likely if there is no feeling of job security on the part of the employees. An orientation program is an indication that the organization treasures their employees and is keen on helping them succeed in their jobs (Heathfield, n.d). 4. Orientation programs likewise give supervisors and managers more time for their work because they no longer need to spend time to train their new employees (Heathfield, n.d). 5. Proper orientation provides employees a framework of what is expected of them. It gives them a realistic overview of their job responsibilities (Heathfield, n.d). The Stages of Orientation Programs There are various methods used by companies in attracting new employees to their fold. Providing nice compensation package is a vital component of bringing in new employees to a certain company but then again it does not assure retention. In fact, according to new technologies in the workplace, effective orientation is actually the best means of reducing the time it would take for new employees to improve their productivity and increase the possibility that they would not leave the company and seek for greener pastures (Award Staffing, 2007). There are three basic stages of orientation namely general, department, and job-specific orientation. Each phase of the program contains key components which are aimed at providing the best results (Award Staffing, 2007). General Orientation This phase of the orientation program is conducted by a personnel from the human resources department and must be completed by new employees of a company. The aim of general orientation is to welcome new employees, make them feel at ease with the workplace and make them aware of the different communication channels (Award Staffing, 2007). Department Orientation While the general orientation provides complete information, the department level orientation is more specific. The aim of this phase is to provide the new employee with knowledge about what they will be their roles and job in the department where they will be assigned. The person in charge of this orientation is the head of the department where the new employee would be stationed (Award Staffing, 2007). The department orientation gives the new employee the chance to get to know the members of the department (Award Staffing, 2007). The goals of the department orientation is to help the new employee become familiar with their department such as its relation to other departments, area of concentration, and the location of the job-related requirement in the area (Award Staffing, 2007). Job Orientation The last phase of the orientation program highlights the expectations and requirements of the employee in order to fit in to the job. It should be conducted by an expert in the main responsibilities of a position and can teach new employees the skills that are required to become successful in their job assignments (Award Staffing, 2007). The Importance of Orientation Program Although companies provide handbooks and manuals, employees still feel confused, overwhelmed, and unwelcome. When this happens, employees begin to cast doubts on the sincerity of the firm and their decision to leave their old company. Here are some of the common mistakes of companies when it comes to new employee orientation (O’Toole, n.d). †¢ Delighting the new employees with statistics, names, and faces integrated into a single session. †¢ Showing boring video †¢ Providing long lectures †¢ Failure to make preparations for the arrival of the new employee The importance of an employee orientation program cannot be discounted. Just as clients want to be treated well by a certain company, the same treatment is expected by new employees from their new company and co-workers. Here are some reasons why new employee is very important. 1. Good orientation programs can increase the retention capability of a firm. New employees have the habit of evaluating the commitment of their future employers within the initial three months of their employment. 2. Orientation programs do not end on the day of the event. They extend beyond the initial week of an employee’s tenure in the company. By providing appropriate orientation and training, companies can improve the productivity of their new employees. 3. Well-crafted orientation programs can help build better attitude and morale, and improve work satisfaction. The Need for an Orientation Program Several studies have underscored the need for companies to put emphasis on employee orientation. New Employee Orientation Practitioner Consensus Survey In a study conducted by the Institute for Corporate Productivity, it was discovered that most companies do not have a new employee orientation program and the main attraction of these firms are branded items bearing the company’s logo. Likewise, the survey revealed that while majority of these companies provide orientation to their new hirees, over one-fifth of these firms do not care to monitor whether the programs are effective (Oakes, 2007). Jay Jamrog (2007), who is SVP for Research of the company believes that the first few days of a new employee are the most crucial as far as building a positive first impression that results to loyal employees. Firms have the tendency to miss out on the opportunity of impressing new employees as well as pouncing on their strengths and weaknesses. This fact is something that companies would need to consider when implementing orientation programs (Oakes, 2007). In addition, the study likewise revealed that 86% of the respondents have established employee orientation programs. Almost half of these programs are conducted in less than a day with 26% concluding their orientation in two or three days. On the aspect of attracting new employees, 54% said that their company relies on handing out items such as pens, folders, binders, etc. while 12% say they do not do anything (Oakes, 2007). On the aspect of effectiveness of the orientation program, 47% of the respondents said that their company relies on employee feedback, 20% on first-year retention, and 17% monitor the performance ratings. It is odd to note that 22% of the respondents did not monitor the effectiveness of their orientation programs (Oakes, 2007). Moreover, 81% of companies delegate the task of administering orientation programs to the human resources department, 23% involve several departments, and 21% include the department where the new employee will be assigned (Oakes, 2007).

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Overview And Analysis Of Womens Empowerment Social Work Essay

Overview And Analysis Of Womens Empowerment Social Work Essay Womens empowerment has more than one component: their right to make decision; their access to opportunities and resources; authority to be in charge of their own lives, both inside and outside the home. Women empowerment has a lot of dimensions attached to it. It revolves around access to knowledge, possession of social and economic resources and more autonomy in political and economic decision making process. All these components and dimensions of women empowerment are interrelated and alteration in one component will not bring a huge transformation unless all the component changes. If women are more productive like men, and both gender work simultaneously for the betterment of the country it will lead to a sustainable way out of poverty. Therefore women should also get equal work opportunities. But women have greater challenges, as they do not get the same economic opportunities as men do. They do not get access to the decent working condition and lag behind men in decision making. In Pakistan women does not has her own proper identity as she is owned by her male folks. Their Integrity, health, is often beyond their own control. They are taken as invisible, underserved and under nourished. Culture of Pakistan is greatly patriarchal resulting in many old and conservative traditions of giving subservient and subordinate role to women. The decisions about womens life are made by men in her family especially in distant and underdeveloped region. In Pakistan specific religion beliefs are deeply rooted in citizens belief and on which many traditions and social perspective surfaces. Women in order to be more enriched politically and economically have to raise their voice , only women force can change the structure of decision making , such a decision making system have to be introduced which can make women more participatory , this will change the agenda of development and women will be working with men equally for development. Such measures should be taken to give importance to women who are underprivileged since women are majority of them. Poverty also plays an n important role as women in low developing countries, who are not properly nourished, how can they even raise their voice for their rights. In order to eliminate gender disparity and empower women, we should redistribute resources and remove such practices which are discriminatory Gender empowerment mean that females ought to gain equality under the law and it must be implemented and enforced. Womens empowerment essentially contains legal fairness, equal access to education and practical exercise, females management at the national level, positive action for jobs with one and the same pay, and a gender-sensitive justice system. 1.2 Relevance of topic and research title Women consist of more than 50 percent of population in Pakistan and to deprive this half population of empowerment is to deprive our economy of growth. Women empowerment will not only result in the empowerment of women but also the economic well being of the country. The development of the country also should result in equitable distribution of development benefits especially to the women sector. Economically empower women have more autonomy and resultantly this can transform their children and family lives. As she is a pivot about which entire family unit revolve, therefore an economically enriched woman has a constructive impact on the future generation. Countries who dont take benefit of its full population and ignores half of it, it is actually misallocating its resources, which will only lead to the reducing their development potential. All countries should focus on its weakness and learn from more successful countries. It should also set up such policies which take advantage of the whole population, as in both female and male. As successful countries are the one who recognize the potential in the women force as well for development. Throughout the world, there is not a single country which can boast of gender equality and full women empowerment. Women still out there face discrimination and are lagging behind in one way or the other. Gender equality in two critical sections is very important like economic and political empowerment of women. There is improvement in health and education with the advent of technology and as globally economies are developing but yet there is a long way to go as women are still very behind men especially in decision making and income earning. With the past trend it is quiet visible women are actively participating in to take charge of their own lives and this is in fact effecting the communities and society as a whole. But there is a big problem as women are not consistent class, they vary by race culture, society, brought up and opportunity, thus these factors also plays an important part in the disparity of women as these factors affect the behavior of society members. The objective of this research is to find out what political and economical determinants effect the women empowerment especially in Pakistan. The main goal is to find out what past variables have been selected and to learn from them and find new determinants. 1.3 Background Information and evolution As Pakistan is a growing and developing country and for the past few years its condition is not much improving, this in act is further affecting the condition of women. As more and more people are effected and thus poverty is increasing. Thus women have to strive hard to contribute to the family income, so that their family is at least above poverty line In Pakistan, apparently through the perspective of Islam this country says it gives equal right to both men and women but there is another side to the picture. Women constitute a small portion in decison making and they contribute very less o the development of the country as there labor force participation with respect to men is very less. The status of women in this country represents the traditions and the social customs, which led women to this condition. Women are always underprivileged then man in Pakistan, they get less education, food, decision making and health. As it is consider men are the lords of women, and women are deprived from their basic rights. Women destiny is controlled by men. This is not the case in Pakistan only but also in many countries men are considered superior than women. To achieve development, we have to convert our weakness to strengths. It is also known that increase women participation in the labor force will benefit the growth and resources can be distributed more easily to disadvantaged people. Thus women should get decent work, social protection and voice at work. As most of the time women are subjugated to lower wages than men and their wages have barely increased over time and they are offered low skilled, low paid atypical jobs, mainly performed from home. One of the greatest achievements in Pakistan, during the last decade has been the increasing proportion of women in the labor force, enabling women all over the country to use their potential in the labor market and to achieve economic independence. But yet we still have a long way o go. From Global perspective higher percentage of female are working in the developed countries than ever before, yet at the identical time these women continuing raise children to bear new burdens. But these women face tradeoffs as it will be difficult to find good demanding jobs with children to look after too as well. That is why there is not equal opportunity for men and women. Not only the family but also the society, government and the whole nation will benefit from the empowerment of women. Versatile aspects contribute to the passive functions played by women in the Pakistan Society. Great emphasis has been laid on removing gender inequality and improving women empowerment as Millennium Developmental Goal, resultantly many efforts have been initiated by the Government and NGOs in Pakistan on this issue According to (Pakistan employment trends for women) , international Labor Organization (ILO), has the objective of the promotion of opportunities for women and men to obtain productive employment and decent work in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity is also the overall objective of the four fundamental ILO Conventions stressing gender equality cover: (1) equal remuneration (2) non-discrimination in employment and occupation, (3) workers with family responsibilities and (4) maternity protection. The Millennium Development Goals that emerged from the UN Millennium Declaration of September 2000 are specific measurable targets, including the one for reducing the extreme poverty that still grips more than 1 billion of the worlds people by 2015. Central to this promise are the MDGs related to educational outcomes: (1) Ensure that all children complete primary education by 2015. (2) Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education. By 2006, most countries have already fallen well behind the necessary targets to meet these goals (Millennium Development Goal, 2006). As stated in millennium development goal 3 the promotion of gender equality and empowerment is fundamental to achieving the remaining MDGs .Likewise, there is evidence that addressing gender issues benefits individuals and families, workers and employers, society and national economies. Improving womens wages and earnings has been identified as a key element in tackling poverty and achieving the MDGs. Yet there are Country specific activities to promote gender equality and decent work as in Pakistans constitution ensures all fundamental human rights and guarantees equal employment opportunities for men and women. Existing labor legislations do not discriminate against anyone on the basis of sex, but women are not allowed to work in a few areas for health and safety reasons, but the society as a whole plays a big part. the traditions of Pakistan forces women to sit at home and look after the children only , whether there husband give them money or not ,. Society or community does not approve females going out and raisening voices for their rights. They also disapprove females working outside their homes. It is consider the work of women juts to look after their families. So to change this whole perceptive media is playing a big part but the government also needs to be active. As recently the Government initiated a number of activities to promote gender equality at the heart of decent work and to achieve MDG target calling for full and productive employment and decent work for all including women and young people. Those activities range from gender Sensitive revisions of constitutional and legal provisions to the establishment of new policy frameworks that help to accomplish the target. Therefore, the promotion of rights of women and men in the world of work and to achieve gender equality are reflected in a number of national development frameworks and policy documents including the Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) for 2005-10, the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and documents exclusively relating to labor markets such as the 2002 Labor Policy and the 2006 Labor Protection Policy. Pakistans Decent Work Country Program (DWCP) spells out the main strategy and plan of action to promote the creation of decent work with gender equality as a cross cutting theme. Overview of existing national policies and development frameworks that stress gender equality and decent work in the country. (Haq) 1.4 Managerial and Academic concerns My research will highlight the key determinants of women empowerment in Pakistan. As this issue is not only prevalent in Pakistan but is a global issue. as It is very important to conduct a research on determinants of women empowerment because it will stress on women troubles and bring them in to attention and it can facilitates and direct the policy makers to make such an intervention in their area, that could enrich these females not only economically but also politically and financially so that they can make a difference in their children lives and their individual living environment .Consequently providing her the individual safety and self-respect that is her essential right. this research is will also help independent institutions like NGOs to reach out to economically and politically deprived women as The negligence of women in development process will be big loss for Pakistan as it will result in loss in human potential and ultimately effect national development. Academically, this research is very important for the students as it will help them pinpoint the economic and political determinants which effect the women empowerment in Pakistan. Student will find this research more feasible and accurate. As now more people are getting aware of this issue, so more teachers and students are doing research on women empowerment. They find this investigation more helpful. 1.6 Keywords and Definitions Empowerment Refers to increasing the spiritual, political, social or economic strength of individuals and communities. It often involves the empowered developing confidence in their own capacities (Ouellette) Womens empowerment refers to the ability of women to transform economic and social development when empowered to fully participate in the decisions that affect their lives through leadership training, coaching, consulting, and the provision of enabling tools for women to lead within their communities, regions, and countries (Wise earth) Economic and political Determinants An identifiable elementin economicand political that affectsthat limitsor definesa decisionor condition. 1.7 Study Objectives This study is an attempt to find the determinants of women empowerment in Pakistan as women being the core element of development and in Pakistan it consists of more than half of the population. To study the impact of the Economic participation on women empowerment. To study the impact of the health on women empowerment. To study the impact of the Power over economic resources on women empowerment. To study the impact of the Microfinance on women empowerment. To study the impact of the Political empowerment on women empowerment. To study the impact of the Education attainment on women empowerment. To study the impact of the traditions on women empowerment. End notes With the advent of technology and progress in development, yet in this era women still lack behind men in power because even though a lot has been done for the empowerment of women but there is still a long way to go. Especially in Pakistan, the norms and tradition practiced are such that which suppresses the rights of female. Since independences of Pakistan, women have not gained freedom from these discriminating norms. Even though there has been a progress but this progress is very slow. Even though gains has been made, as by UNDP, the share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector which at present is around 10 percent and the MTDF target is 12 percent ant there has been improvement in the proportion of seats held by women in national parliament from just 0.9 percent in the National Assembly and 1.0 percent in Senate, but to empower women not only our government but also society as a whole ha to work very hard.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

New Zealands Monetary and Fiscal policies

New Zealands Monetary and Fiscal policies (a) (i) Inflation Targeting An inflation targeting is a monetary approach used by government as a strategy to maintain the interest rate at a certain level. This normally involve up to two parties which are a government and a central bank that are responsible in keeping the price within a specific range. They would alter the interest rate in order to achieve favourable level of interest rate to keep away inflation in an economy. In New Zealand, the targeted inflation rate was 1 per cent to 3 per cent as desirable range (Reserved Bank of New Zealand, 2007). However, this policy able to protect the business sectors in New Zealand especially the University education sector. Education was as crucial contributor to increase living standard of New Zealander. The University education sector was not much differ from other sector because it is like a business to offer employment and increase production growth. The goal of Reserved Bank of New Zealand set an inflation rate range of 1 per cent to 3 per cent is to maintain the equilibrium of price and avoid fluctuation (Parliamentary Library, 2002). As the price is stable, it will attract more foreign student to study in New Zealand and the demand of the New Zealand dollars would be increasing since the education system is comparable to world leading education. (a) (ii) Policy Target Agreement Policy Target Agreement is the mutual agreement between the Governor of the Reserved Bank of New Zealand and New Zealand Government. This agreement goal is to keep economy from minimum inflation and maintain the price stability. The Reserved Bank of New Zealand was also responsible in monitoring and measuring the level of prices. There is various way of measuring the inflation and Consumers Price Index (CPI) was one of the measuring tools used in the Policy Targets Agreement (Reserved Bank of New Zealand, 2007). This tool will record the transaction of prices change from buying goods and services by New Zealand household and the percentage of the change will be the CPI inflation. Using this tool, the price of the currency would be under control and services price from University education sector is under supervision of the Reserved Bank of New Zealand. Reserved bank would maintain the inflation rates of 1 per cent to 2 per cent to avoid any inflation occur. The qualities of the New Zealand Education system itself are already famous among education system among the world, if the prices of the education services are low, it will attract more and more foreign student. Such agreement not even beneficial to education system itself but also bringing advantages to economy whereby the education system in New Zealand is comparable and competitive to other countries in term of services price. (a) (iii) Official Cash Rate Official Cash Rate was first introduced by New Zealand government in year 1999, it is the monetary policy used by Reserved Bank to control the inflation rate. Through Official Cash Rate method, the Reserved Bank able to control the short and long term of interest rate as well as the foreign exchange rate. As in Policy Target Agreement (PTA), both government and the Reserved Bank have obligated to meet the 2 per cent of inflation in future. However, the range defines in Policy Target Agreement which was signed during September 2012, should be achieve the price stability between 1 and 3 per cent average per midterm (Reserved Bank of New Zealand, 2007). In future, the Reserved Bank will increase Official Cash Rate if necessary aiming for 2 per cent rate of inflation in future. (a) (iv) The overall impact on the economy and consequently to University education sector In a nutshell, government and the Reserved Bank adopted the monetary policies to control the supply of money, it can be also saying that to manipulate the fluctuation of the interest rate and in the same time balancing the market price. In context of University Education sector, by set up a targeting inflation method through Policy Target Agreement could be beneficial. The University education sector in New Zealand is moving toward to contribute more in growth of economy. As the University education sector growth is mainly depends on the quality of the education and also the attractive fees rate offered to student. When the Reserved Bank of New Zealand applying the monetary method, the interest rate will be maintaining in a stable range of 1 per cent to 2 per cent to avoid inflation occur (Reserved Bank of New Zealand, 2007). As these price of education is low, it attract foreign student from other countries to enroll into the local university of New Zealand. Such price make the universities of New Zealand a target country for foreign student that providing an A class education system in the same time offering affordable rate of fees. It will influence the demand of New Zealand dollar to be increase in the same time raising the value of the currency. (b) (i) Explain the objectives of government Basically, fiscal policy involves the choice made by government either spending the revenue or collecting the revenue through the tax imposed. It is mainly about how the government and manage its budget in order to stabilize the economy growth. The main concern of fiscal policy is the price stability. In order to maintain the economic growth, a desirable level of price in New Zealand should be achieved because expensive good or services will not be affordable by consumers where this encourages in decrease of the demand level. The price should be remained in a reasonable level of acceptance by consumers to avoid any fall in demand where it discourage business to generate goods and services. High rate of employment is also the main objective of fiscal policy. The high unemployment rate will lower the rate of production and it will influence the level of economic growth to drop. Hence, the government of New Zealand tends to increase the spending such as allocating budget invests in University education sector. The government is rooting for the universities to further expanding New Zealand economic by allocating budget invest in the tertiary education to increase number of graduates with skills required and rate of employment to boost the economy. About $42 million invested for the next 4 years to increase the tuition subsidy to selected courses (Tertiary Education Commission, 2012). Indirectly, it generates more employment by expanding the University education sector because it requires large number of workforce to run the sector. In the other hand, fiscal policy encourage in foreign exchange earnings through exportation of goods or services such as tertiary education. The New Zealand government is enhancing the tertiary education system through Budget 2012 by focusing to improve the educational performance in order to expand this sector (Tertiary Education Commission, 2012). Through the focus given by government, the level of New Zealand education is increased and it attracts quite a number of foreign students from China for approximate 25,345 students and an increase of 2% from last year (New Zealand Education, 2014). These numbers prove that the higher number of foreign student the higher income could earns from foreign countries. (b) (ii) Fiscal policy fine-tuning and its limitations Through fiscal policy approach, government able utilizes this tool to adjust the interest rate and control the spending rate in order to boost the economy (Chirantan, 2014). This policy had its own limitation even though using fiscal policies could stabilize the economy. Inflexibility of fiscal policy can be seen during changes in taxes or spending by government. The objective of fine tuning is to minimize the negative implication by apply the right policy at the right time depending on the state of economy during the different level of economy such as contraction or expansion (Pavlina R. Tcherneva, August 2013). A period of lengthy time could be taken when both political and moral reason to be taken as consideration. By boosting the aggregated demand would lower the rate of unemployment may contribute to inflation as the right shift of aggregate demand would cause rise in price. In the other hand, by shifting the aggregate demand to left would contribute to the increase of unemployment when there is inflation would rather cause dilemmas too. The time lag in applying the approach could be one of the limitations of fiscal policy. It may take up a considerable amount of time to implement unlike monetary policy able to influence economy growth rate easily and time saving by adjusting the interest level. Besides, the fiscal policy implementation involves a comprehensive research to make sure of the economy conditions. The state of the economy might be not the same anymore when the policy is finally ready to be implemented. Government might be gathering the wrong and inaccurate information in such a short period of time and hence economy would suffer from deficit or inflation when the prediction went wrong. (c) (i) Budget deficit Budget deficit in an economy is an situation whereby the federal government spends more than it earn in revenues and causes a budget deficit. The reverse situation will generates a budget surplus as the government earns more revenue than spending. Both fiscal and monetary policies share the same goal which is maintaining the economy rate and achieve a steady economy growth. In fiscal policy, government will increase the tax to decrease the spending because when the goods are expensive, the aggregate demand shifted left and would cause the country to run a deficit. Monetary policy would use to control inflation as well as deflation by manipulating the interest rate. Unlike fiscal policy, the monetary policy will not enlarging the national debt by applying the approach to tune the interest rate to stabilize the economy (Expansionary Monetary Policy Does Not Raise the Budget Deficit, 2013). (c) (ii) A Fully Funded Deficit A fully funded deficit occurs when government expenses is fully funded by tax revenue. This is applicable in theory when there market is perfectly healthy in which the economy is in stabilize state. There are few options, government will either issuing bond or security for a time being to fund the economy. Such options will reduce the spending and boosting the economy. However, during deficit period government will adopt an expansionary fiscal policy to influence the aggregate demand such as supplying money to the economy to lower the currency value. Such move might result in inflation when the demand is higher than supply. (c) (iii) Monetized deficit Monetizing deficit approach is to finance the economy when there is a fiscal deficit in the economy. The government would sell bonds or security by financing the fiscal deficit. Implication from such approach will increase the debt of government. In monetized deficit scenario, the bank would be financing the government debt by producing extra banknotes. Inflation will be happen when the supply of the money is increase in the market and the value of the money will fall. This will help bank to keep targeted inflation rate in ideal range. (a) Trading internationally could of benefit and/or a disadvantage to the business sector. The objective of the international trade is to maximize profits between the interchange of goods and services internationally. The international trade is not only involving the exchanging goods and services across the border, it also creates opportunities for the market to the whole new level. The supply and demand of the goods and services will be created along the international trade occur. In this fast growing economy, the University education sector is no doubt developing an important qualities and criteria on next generation in order to raise the economy level. To ensure producing more competitive and high quality next generation, New Zealand is one of the countries moving towards to achieve the top class of education among the world. The more foreign investments the higher opportunities to stimulates the economy through foreign direct investment. Attracting more foreign investment opportunities will increase the number of universities by expanding the classes and branches worldwide. The government of New Zealand made an effort to attract foreign students such as offering US$2,000 to fund their flight to New Zealand through Education New Zealand Study Abroad Travel Awards (ENZTA) program (New Zealand Education, 2014). Thus, expanding the tertiary education sector will produce much more employment to meet the demands in the market. Higher number of lecturers and administration personnel will be needed to operate the sector. By the times, it could help government to achieve full employment goal. Current balance of payment figures for New Zealand and evaluate the implications of the figures As we can refer from chart 1 and chart 2 from the Appendix A, Statistic New Zealand published the latest seasonally adjusted current account balance of $2 billion deficit in the quarter of June 2014. The amount of deficit is increase for further $1.4 billion since quarter of March 2014. The export of goods and services shown a fell for amount of $1.1 billion and was the main reason contributed to the total deficit value. Referred to chart 2, the balance of goods remains a surplus of $1,250 million in quarter of June 2014. For the year ended of June 2014, the current account shown deficit of $5.8 billion which is 2.5 per cent of the total GDP causes by the fall of export of goods and services. This is can be comparable to 2.7 per cent of GDP from the quarter of March which shown an recovery. New Zealand’s net international liability was recorded at $149.7 billion which equivalent to 65.3 per cent of GDP during 30 June 2014. There is slightly reduction of $1.4 billion from last quarter of March 2014. The external debt shown from the chart was increased by $2.0 billion to total of $142.3 billion to the latest quarter. The high interest rate in New Zealand suspected contributed to the fall in exports of goods and services. This might explain that the fall in export is causes by the low demand of currency. When the currency is expensive, it tends to lower the demand and hence affected the currency value to shoot up. When this applies to New Zealand University education sector, the tuition fees would be relatively expensive than other country. However, the budget 2012 supports Government’s effort on improving the educational performance of students in tertiary education. Through the effort in budget 2012, they invested approximately $42 million to subsidy selected engineering courses for over 4 years (Tertiary Education Commission, 2012). Even though the falls in balance of payment are mainly contributed from the export of goods and services, the effort from government such as allocating the budget to subsidies the tertiary education sector will prove that the sector will continue to benefit t o the economy. (i) ) The impact of exchange rate on the demand and supply of New Zealand dollars The demand and supply was the variables to determine the exchange rates of currency. Shifting the aggregate demand to right will affect the price to rise and shifting supply to right will lower the price. Thus, higher demand of currency will contribute to high price of currency while excessive of supply contributed in low price of currency. It is applicable to University Education sector and can be seen through budget 2012, government provides subsidies and incentive to enhance the education system and bring opportunities to attract foreign students. When there is certain reputation of New Zealand education system among the foreign market, it attracts more foreign to study in this country and the demand for New Zealand dollar will be increase. Since studying in New Zealand requires its currency as fees, it definitely attracts higher investment from the other country. Consequently, the demand of education in New Zealand market from foreign countries will raise the demand of New Zealand currency. The higher of the demand of education, the higher value of the currency (ii) ) The impact of exchange rate on the exports and imports The aggregate demand of the exchange rates is influence by the effect if export and imports. If the exchange rate undergoes a rise, the exports will be cheaper and imports will be more expensive in other currencies. This could be inflationary situation in an economy if the price of import experience rises and make export is cheaper. This effect would increase demand of currency from overseas since the New Zealand dollars is relatively cheaper than other currency because they will find beneficial to their business. The demand is mainly depends on the price elasticity of demand for exports and hence influencing the exchange rate of currency. (iii) The impact of exchange rate on the balance of payments All the payments receipt or pay from other countries is recorded as the balance of payments in a financial account. The financial account records all the transaction either from an individual to a size of business internationally. It involves the inflows and outflows of money for foreign investment in an economy. Generally, the currency value in a balance economy will be more attract more demand for it and hence leading an increase value of currency. When the balance of payment was in negative state, the economy accountability of the balance payment will decrease and it will influence the exchange rate to experience a falls. The scenario happens when there the supply of currency is higher than demand in the market. (iv)The impact of exchange rate on the monetary policy In generally, monetary policy is used to maintain the economy level by manipulating the supplies of money and altering the interest rate. When facing inflation, the approach is used by central bank to increase the interest rate. Such attractive interest rate will attract foreign investor when the return is high and profitable. Hence, it increases the demand of the currency and boosting the level of exchange rate simultaneously. In short, the monetary policy influences the price of money by altering the interest rate to increase the demand. Such exchange rate is simply a reflection of foreign demand for a country currency. References Expansionary Monetary Policy Does Not Raise the Budget Deficit. (2013, October 15). Retrieved September 23, 2014, from Monetary Vs. Fiscal Policy: http://blog.supplysideliberal.com/post/64090184528/monetary-vs-fiscal-policy-expansionary-monetary. Chirantan Basu. (2014, August 31). Business Society. Retrieved September 24, 2014, from What Are the Four Most Important Limitations of Fiscal Policy: http://www.ehow.com/info_8512661_four-important-limitations-fiscal-policy.html New Zealand Education. (2014, September 17). New Zealand Education. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from Market Research : China: http://www.enz.govt.nz/markets-research/china Pavlina R. Tcherneva. (August 2013). Reorienting Fiscal Policy. A Critical Assessment of Fiscal Fine, 1-27. Reserved Bank of New Zealand. (2007, July). Monetary Policy. Retrieved September 23, 2014, from Reserved Bank of New Zealand: http://www.rbnz.govt.nz/monetary_policy/ Tertiary Education Commission. (2012, May 24). Tertiary Education Commission. Retrieved September 22, 2014, from Budget 2012 : Universities: http://www.tec.govt.nz/Funding/Budget/Budget-2012/Universities/ Appendix A Chart 1 Source : Statistic New Zealand Chart 2 Appendix B ; Source : Statistic New Zealand