Friday, February 22, 2019
Is Enough Being Done to Preserve Languages? Essay
Throughout history the field has consisted of many cultures and spoken communications, close to of them move over been dominant, any(prenominal) of them fork out been kid. Until the 20th century international and nonage wordings have continued a peaceful coexistence that has provided cultural diversity for the Earth. In the present this balance has been broken and close to of indigenous languages unravel to disappear. Although oecumenical scientists do non sp ar efforts to stop this extinction, there is a contention whether it is sufficient to do for saving extinct languages or not. Some experts adumbrate that some positive trends have emerged in linguistic field which lav alleviate the grave situation such as master-apprentices computer scheduleme and large documental projects. However, many scientists assert that the measures be not enough to hold dear languages from losing, since the rate of this process is extremely high and negative attitudes towards local languages be intensive. Therefore, this essay allow for contend efforts that have been made to preserve languages are inadequate because of considerable amount of adverse aspects.There are some effective efforts have been made to save up languages in the world. One of these efforts is master-apprentices program which has increased the survival of languages. In this program young people figure their birth language by older generation who teach them conventional customs and craftsmanship. For example, in California essential Americans are trained basket weaving in their own native tongue, because of this method it is enough more or less 300 hours to begin to speak fluently (Knight, 2000). Similarly, another successful master-apprentices program has been develop by academic Leanne Hinton of Berkeley and has passed on the knowledge and skills of indigenous Native American languages to the youth. As a result, this incentive can provide to sustentation of 25 aboriginal languag es in the US (Wayt-Gibbs, 2002).The adjoining one of effective ways to preserve languages is musical accompaniment which has supported fieldwork and other activities relevant to ledgering, documenting and archiving imperil languages. In the recent years several potent bottoms have been created in order to invest considerable amount of money for these purposes. According to Wayt-Gibbs(2002), the Volkswagen foundation has helped to establish a multimedia history in the Netherland and collect data on dozen rare languages. Moreover, owing to the Lisbet Ra utilize Charitable Fund, in the UK linguists willing probably manage to record and save about 100 minor languages (Wayt Gibbs, 2002). In fact, these immense documentation projections can be more good for science rather than earthy people, since the preservation does not contribute using nonage languages in the real life. To sum up, due to some positive projects that have raised interest and investment to saving endangered l anguages, scientists take to to stop language extinction.However, there are an impressive number of negative forecasts to further existence of linguistic variety in our planet. The greatest fill is caused by rate of decease minor languages especially in developed countries. Krauss, a linguistic professor at the University of Alaska, states that about 3 000 languages will have vanished by the end of the century. For example, only two of 20 languages cognize in Alaska have been learn by children (Wayt-Gibbs, 2002). Moreover, the Navajo tongue is withal on the danger list because only elder people speak in this language (Knight, 2000). The similar process has occurred in Australia, where 20 of 70 primal languages were not spoken by all current generations (Wayt-Gibbs, 2002). Respectively, most scientists are concerned about the alarming situation and its development in the future.Nevertheless, common people, especially native speakers, often have inferior attitude towards their o wn language. This attitude is another cause of disappearing minor languages. Owing to reading a dominate language and forgetting own language, people hope to change their standard of living and be equal to their surroundings. This case happened to some dialects in Scottish which have given way to common English language (Wayt-Gibbs, 2002). It is obvious that an individual does not understand why he or she has to save own language when it is not useful for everyday life. Thus, the world has lost its language diversity with the exponential rate, as indigenous communities have renounceed using its own language in favor of planetary languages in order to have better opportunities for themselves and their children.Therefore, although some encouraging perspectives have recently appeared in linguistic fields to prevent minority languages from dying out, the process of language extinction is irreversible. Most of the evidence was presented above especially from developed countries such as the US and Australia. Nonetheless, developing countries have also lost its indigenous languages. According to Wayt-Gibbs (2002), there are aboriginal languages in Brazil, Ivory Coast, East Timor which it is likely to be extinct in the next 100 years. How it can be seen from the examples, almost in all split of the world there are disappearing languages and its number increase constantly. As for people who renounce their own languages in favor of a global language, they do it not always willingly, but under pressure of policy-making and economical circumstances.In the past the US government constrained the Navajo to reject from their language (Knight, 2000). Moreover, for business it is not also profitable to contribute language diversity that prevents from economic globalization (Knight, 2000). For these reasons the fate of most local languages are sealed. While some optimists insist that it is possible to save losing languages because of master-apprentices program, Wayt-Gibbs (2002) states that this project is not widespread, mainly in the US. In addition to that, he claims that elder speakers tend to die before they pass on their knowledge to the youth.In tenderness to positive results of documentation undertaking, creation of language archives has encountered serious complication due to inconsistency of collected data and uncertainty with the period of archives maintenance (Wayt-Gibbs, 2002). Even if to allow that linguists manage to collect and record all endangered languages, humanity would receive only an outline that could not revive real languages (Wayt-Gibbs, 2002). Thus, although attempts to save language variety are ill-defined and separate, the world prefers to use several dominant languages. Perhaps, it is worth reflecting to native speakers which language they will choose in the future and they will not deviation probably only their own language, but their own lifestyle and throughway.In conclusion, minor languages disappear extremely qu ickly throughout the world and most non-global language speakers consider their language as useless. Despite of some sincere attempts to transmit indigenous languages from elder people to new generation and save minor languages by means of its documentation, these projects are not sufficient to live on these languages as the educational program has not spread widely and documentation has not manage to revitalize languages, only collect and record some of them. As a result, by the end of the century most minority languages will have vanished. Nowadays, the cost which people pay for vague successfulness and social safety seems no high, nevertheless, in the future they may cognize that they lost not only their language and their identity.ReferencesKnight, J 2000, Lost for lyric, New Scientist, 12 August, viewed 14 November 2007, http// www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=mg16722512.400&print=true .Wayt-Gibbs, W 2002, manner of speaking Dying Languages, Scientific American, August, p.p. 78-85.